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Thursday, November 17, 2005

Section I: Biological Sciences

IC--318

Mark S. Davis and Terry D. Schwaner, Presiding

7:30 CORRELATION OF SEX, AGE, AND BODY MASS WITH HOOF SIZE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER FROM THE PIEDMONT WILDLIFE REFUGE, GEORGIA, Ben Batchelor* and Alfred J. Mead, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. The distal forelimbs and mandibles of 157 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during 2001 on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia, were used to determine the osteometric correlation of sex, age, and body mass with hoof size. The sample contained 55 females and 102 males. The width of the right, front, lateral distal phalanx and the distance from the tip of the dew-claw to the tip of the distal phalanx were used as measures of hoof size. Linear regressions were carried out on each osteometric parameter for each sex and for the combined sexes. Although minor correlations were observed between female weight vs. dew-claw/hoof tip length, female weight vs. distal phalanx width, male weight vs. distal phalanx width, and combined sexes weight vs. distal phalanx width, no statistically significant correlations were observed. This analysis suggests that white-tailed deer age, sex, or weight cannot be estimated accurately using the relative size of the hoof.

7:45 A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DIVERSITY AMONG SELECTED TAXA OF DYTISCIDAE (COLEOPTERA) USING MANDIBULAR MORPHOLOGY AND GEOMETRY, Christy C. Cecil*, W. P. Wall, and E. H. Barman, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville GA 31061. A recent phylogenetic hypothesis has Coptotominae, Laccophilinae, Copelatinae, and Hydroporinae in a single lineage. Mandibles of representative species of each of these subfamilies were examined to determine angle of attack, arc, and, basal angle, using Matus as an out-group. Representatives of the clade that were examined had more acute angles of attack than did Matus with Laccornis having the most acute. Arcs of Laccophilus and Copelatus are similar to those of Matus with smaller arcs computed for Coptotomus and Laccornis. Basal angles of Coptotomus and Laccornis were comparable to the basal angle of Matus with more acute basal angles observed on Laccophilus and Copelatus. The role that the mandible plays in food acquizition and manipulation is also examined. Systematic conclusions about the relationships between these taxa are made in light of the biomechanical constraints placed on the mandible for a given feeding niche. The possibility of convergent evolution in these characters is discussed. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research services, Georgia College & State University. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Project No. 57.

8:00 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LARVA OF RHANTUS CALIDUS (FABRICIUS) (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE), B.R. Lemieux (*1), E. H. Barman (1), and B. P. White (2), (1) Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 and (2) Georgia Military College, Warner Robins, GA 31093. Rhantus calidus is the only species of record in Georgia for this cosmopolitan genus. The primary chaetotaxy of legs, last abdominal segment, and cerci is generally consistent with that reported for Rhantus and a related genus, Colymbetes. However, significant differences were noted when the morphology of the mature larva of R. calidus was compared to that of mature larvae of previously identified and/or described larvae of other Rhantus and Colymbetes species. Differences in the larval morphology of R. calidus include: i) absence of secondary cercal sensilla, ii) spine-like rather than lamellate frontoclypeal sensilla, and iii) differences in the distribution and size of the stemmata. These differences in larval morphology indicate that the present generic placement of R. calidus is doubtful. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, Georgia College & State University. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 55.

8:15 A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE MANDIBULAR MUSCULATURE OF THE MATURE LARVA OF THERMONECTUS BASILLARIS (HARRIS) (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE: ACILIINI) AS A CONSEQUENCE OF STEMMATAL ENLARGEMENT, Angeline Mouton*, W. P. Wall, and E. H. Barman, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville GA 31061. Dytiscid larval mandibles are acted upon by the mandibular abductor and adductor muscles. In larvae of Agabus punctatus, the stemmata are relatively small and the abductor muscle has its insertion laterally on the base of the mandible and its origin along the lateral cranial wall. The two dorsal stemmata of Thermonectus basillaris are columnar in shape, penetrate deeply into the cranial interior, and occupy a significant proportion of the lateral cranial interior. As a result of the increase in size and location of the dorsal stemmata, the mandibular abductor of T. basillaris has a ventromedial rather than a lateral origin. The change in the orientation of the mandibular abductor muscle alters mandibular biomechanics and indicates the dominance of sensory requirements over mandibular biomechanical requirements in this taxon. Thermonectus has a hyperprognathic cranial morphology that is most likely an adaptation for feeding on prey above it in the water column. This active mode of predation may explain the increased importance of visual acuity in this taxon. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, Georgia College & State University. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Project No. 58.

8:30 AN ANALYSIS OF VARATION IN LATERAL CRANIAL ARCHITECTURE OF RELATED TAXA OF DYTISCIDAE (COLEOPTERA) USING DISTORTION COORDINATES (CARTESIAN TRANSFORMATIONS), Shannon N. Shepley (*1), W. P. Wall (2), and E. H. Barman (2), (1) Georgia Military College, Milledgeville, GA 31061 and (2) Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Distortion coordinates were employed to compare and contrast the lateral cranial morphology of representative species of a dytiscid clade that includes the genera Laccophilus, Coptotomus, Copelatus, and Neoporus. The analysis includes comparisons of representatives of this clade with Matus bicarinatus as the out-group. The analysis revealed five distinct cranial architectures. Each representative taxon examined exhibited significant differences, including differences in cranial orientation that ranges from hypoprognathic to hyperprognathic. Differences in internal landmarks include the presence or absence of occipital sutures and posterolateral notches, and differences in the relative positions of posterior frontoclypeal boundaries and antennal origins. Life habits of these taxa can be inferred by careful analysis of these cranial characters. This project was supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, Georgia College & State University. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Project No. 56.

8:45 BEAVER (CASTOR CANADENSIS) IMPACTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES IN SOUTHERN GEORGIA**, Jessica R. Brzyski*, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. North American beavers are considered ecosystem engineers and through their activities can create long-term changes in the ecosystem. Modifications of habitat by beaver can increase species richness at the landscape level, yet beaver constructions may permit highly aggressive colonizing plants, notably non-native species, to invade or potentially dominate. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure the abundance and diversity of herbaceous and small woody vegetation, (2) measure degree of canopy opening, and (3) assess the relative abundance of non-native to native vegetation in two areas: beaver modified habitat (N=9) and nearby but relatively non-impacted riparian habitat (N=9) in a matched pairs design. Vegetation surveys and canopy cover measures were performed at each site for two seasons. In a 100 m X 20 m sampling area, herbaceous and woody vegetation were counted and identified along nine transects at intervals of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m perpendicular to the waterline. Species richness, exotic species abundance, and canopy cover will be compared between beaver-modified and non-modified sites. Species richness will also be analyzed across a gradient perpendicular to the waterline within each site. Beaver activities can influence the course of succession by altering the composition and structure of plant communities. This study will attempt to answer specifically how ecosystem engineers such as the beaver alter the plant community. Funding was received from Sigma Xi Grants-in-Aid of Research Program and Georgia Southern University Graduate Student Research Grant.

9:00 DETERMINING THE PREVALENCE OF TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI IN THE BALDWIN COUNTY, GEORGIA, POPULATION OF OPOSSUMS (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA) USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION**, Emily Parrish*, H. Reed, D. Bachoon, and A. Mead, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, Georgia, 31061. Urbanization of Georgia's rural areas brings residents into closer contact with known reservoirs of the protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and the insects that act as vectors. Previous studies of reservoir hosts relied on microscopic examination of blood or serologic tests for antibodies. These methods are not entirely reliable, as trypanosomes invade tissues and are rarely found in the bloodstream after the initial stages of infection. Serologic tests are more reliable, but cross-reactive antigens may result in false-positives. This study tested heart muscle tissue, where the parasite prefers to encyst. Thirty-one road-killed opossums were collected; their hearts were extracted and fresh frozen. From a cell culture provided by R. Tarleton of the University of Georgia, a positive control was established by injecting parasites into heart tissue samples. A pork heart was used as a negative control. DNA was extracted from heart tissue using a Proteinase K protocol. Polymerase chain reaction of this DNA with T. cruzi-specific primers indicated whether parasite DNA was present. Previous studies using visual examination of blood or serologic tests have shown the presence of T. cruzi in ~16% of raccoon and opossum populations. This more sensitive PCR method may show a higher prevalence of the parasite. Funding for this study came through a Georgia College and State University Faculty Research Grant.

9:15 REINTRODUCTION OF FIRE IN A LONG-UNBURNED MOUNTAIN LONGLEAF PINE FOREST--IMPACTS ON FINE ROOT AND MYCORRHIZAL DYNAMICS**, Brianna E. Bennett*, and J.J. Hendricks, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), once the dominant forest type in the southeastern United States, is a fire-dependent forest that has decreased significantly in range (> 97%) since the advent of fire suppression laws in the 1920s. Recent efforts to reintroduce fire into these long-unburned ecosystems has resulted in significant tree kill, emphasizing the need to gain an improved understanding of the impacts of burning on the structure and function of these forests. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a growing season prescribed burn on fine root and mycorrhizal fungi dynamics. The fire reached peak temperatures of 34 and 685[degrees]C in the humus and ground surface strata, respectively, and consumed 35% of the organic horizon. There was not a significant direct reduction in root standing biomass due to burning. However, post-burn root and mycorrhizal production was approximately 50% lower in the burn plots relative to control plots (2.9 [+ or -] 2.3 versus 5.6 [+ or -] 1.3 g [m.sup.-2] [mo.sup.-1]). Thus, while burning did not have an apparent direct impact on fine root and mycorrhizal production, there was a potential indirect effect of burning resulting in a trend of reduced production belowground. These preliminary results highlight the need to explore the belowground impacts of burning in longleaf pine forests to develop ecologically sound conservation, silvicultural, and management regimes for these endangered ecosystems.

9:30 CARBON SOURCE AND SINK CONTROLS ON MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI PRODUCTION IN A LONGLEAF PINE FOREST, Stephanie E. Sims*, and J.J. Hendricks, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. The objective of this study was to evaluate how a reduction of carbon source strength (i.e. decreasing current photosynthate production to roots via foliar scorching) and an increase in the carbon sink strength (i.e., increasing fine root and hyphal N concentrations, and hence respiration rates, via fertilization) influence the production of mycorrhizal fungi in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. Study sites were established in a 20 year-old monospecific plantation using a complete, randomized factorial design consisting of two fertilization (control and 50 kg N [ha.sup.-1] [yr.sup.-1]) and two foliar reduction (control and 85% canopy scorch) treatments with eight replication plots (each 20 m' 20 m) of each treatment combination. In each treatment plot, mycorrhizal production was assessed by measuring sporocarp, root tip colonization, and extramatrical hyphal production. Repeated measure analyses of total fungal biomass for main and interaction effects of fertilization, scorching, and time revealed a significant fertilization 'time interaction (P < 0.0387). Peak differences in fungal biomass between the control (mean = 0.02 mg fungal biomass/g soil dry mass, SD = 0.007) and fertilization treatments (mean = 0.003, SD = 0.004) occurred in late summer. These results indicate that carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi is inversely related to soil fertility, thereby supporting the "differential allocation" hypothesis regarding soil resource controls on carbon allocation and net primary production in forests.

9:45 THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF HETERANDRIA FORMOSA (TELEOSTEI, POECILIIDAE) IN LOWNDES COUNTY, GEORGIA, Jason C. Chaney and David L. Bechler, Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0015. Heretofore, Heterandria formosa has not been reported from Lowndes County, Georgia, in the literature. We report on a county-wide survey in which eight localities from the southeastern portion of the county produced more than 30 specimens of H. formosa. The southeastern portion of the county is primarily flatwoods with numerous wetlands and low gradient streams compared to the remainder of the county which is typified by a more upland habitat with greater relief and greater stream gradients. It is postulated that the greater stream gradients have inhibited the migration of H. formosa into the southwestern and northern portions of the county. The sex ratio of the 30 specimens collected was 1:5, males to females, and may be controlled by genetics, predation, or a combination of the two.

10:00 Business meeting

10:30-12:00 Poster session

POSTERS

IC--Second floor lobby

DIEL PATTERNS OF INVERTEBRATE DRIFT IN A MIDDLE GEORGIA STREAM**, Andrew Bigham, Melanie A. Hall* and Diana Turner, Departments of Biology and Environmental Science, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia, 31207. The phenomenon of invertebrate drift refers to the downstream dispersal of benthic organisms that inhabit the substratum of streams and rivers. Presumably, the adaptive significance of the behavior is related to predator avoidance, reductions in intra- and interspecific competition, and exploitation of more favorable patches. We hypothesized that if fish predation were an important factor in the population dynamics of steam macroinvertebrates, then the pattern of invertebrate drift might exhibit a diel periodicity. As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, in mid-November, six Surber samplers were placed in sections of Walnut Creek (Bibb Co., GA) that were similar in both flow rate and depth. Drift organisms were collected over two-hour intervals at sunrise and at midday over a period of several days. The abundance of organisms dispersing downstream over any two-hour interval was fairly low (n = 4 to 23 per sampler), suggesting that the time spent adrift was kept to a minimum. However, a diel pattern was clearly evident with a statistically significant preference for the dawn hours (p = 0.002). These two observations suggest that the time and duration of invertebrate drift may be important in the avoidance of visual predators. This research was sponsored by the Biology and Environmental Science Departments of Mercer University under the advisement of Alan Smith.

A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUTRIENT LEVELS AND RELATIVE ALGAL ABUNDANCE IN MIDDLE GEORGIA LAKES AND PONDS**, Jenniffer Corriea, Gypsy Long, Emily Salman*, and Emily Woodard, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. Nutrient concentrations in limnetic systems are highly variable and are affected by both naturally occurring as well as anthropogenic factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there exists a relationship between nutrient levels and the relative abundance of suspended algal growth in middle Georgia ponds and lakes. Water and algal samples from the surfaces of 30 different lake and pond sites were collected over a period of several weeks during the fall of 2004. Distinguishing characteristics (e.g., vegetation types, waterfowl activity, run-off sources) of each study site were recorded. The aquatic habitats were grouped into three usage categories: residential, industrial and recreational. A customized grid system provided a quantitative assessment of algal abundance in each water sample. Nitrate and phosphate concentrations for each sample were obtained by colormetric analysis using commercially available test kits (LaMotte, CHEMets, respectively). Potential correlations between factors (e.g., nutrients loads, algal abundance) were tested statistically. Alan Smith served as the faculty consultant for this project and funding was provided by the Department of Biology, Mercer University.

GENETIC VARIATION IN FOUNDER POPULATIONS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN GECKO, HEMIDACTYLUS TURCICUS, ACROSS THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES**, Ashleigh DeVries* and Terry D. Schwaner, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Populations initially founded by a small number of individuals risk chance increases in some genetic variants (founder effect) and experience periods during which only a few individuals survive to continue the existence of the population (bottlenecks). Random changes in allele frequencies result from sampling of gametes from generation to generation (genetic drift), increasing the likelihood of fixation and homozygosity in these populations. The Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus, was introduced to port cities along the Gulf Coast (and elsewhere) in the early 20th century. Gecko populations occupying buildings separated by only a few city blocks exhibited differences in allele frequencies likely due to founder effect, and possibly bottlenecks and genetic drift. This study compared expected probabilities of polymorphism and heterozygosity, computed from allelic frequencies in representative source populations in port cities of the southeast (Mobile, Alabama, and Gulfport, Mississippi), with actual levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity among founder populations sampled from Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and Arizona.

ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY ON THE SCALE OF A POND ECOSYSTEM**, Kelly Floyd, Annie Harris, Kyle Hunt*, and Sara Noone, Department of Biology, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. The MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium theory of island biogeography contends that, based on immigration and extinction rates, larger islands closer to the mainland should exhibit higher equilibrium species diversities than smaller, more distant islands. The purpose of this study, conducted during the fall of 2004, was to test the immigration component of the theory on a small scale by using a 68-m wide, 2-hectare, Monroe County (GA) pond as the model system. Hester-Dendy samplers (n=15) served as "islands" and were suspended 5 cm below the surface from buoyed PVC pipes tethered to a polyester-nylon rope transect. Five islands each were placed in one of three treatment groups based on a prescribed distance from the shore: near shore (1.4 m), quarter way (17.4 m), and midway (32 m). The samplers remained in place for 6 weeks and were then removed without dislodging the resident organisms by enclosing each in a polystyrene jar for later ethanol preservation. Macroscopic invertebrates were identified to the family and/or morphospecies level. We had predicted that species richness, species diversity, and population density would be inversely related to immigration distance; however, any such correlation, if present, might have been obscured by several possible factors for which we had not accounted: (1) two mainlands with different migration distances, the shallow-vegetated littoral zone and the benthic zone, may have confounded the relationship; (2) equilibrium communities must be established before any significant relationship can be discerned; and (3) predation rates on the macroinvertebrates (e.g., Chironomidae) may have been disproportionately higher in the near shore, vegetated region. Alan Smith served as the faculty consultant for this project and funding was provided by the Department of Biology, Mercer University.

INGESTION RATES OF FIVE SPECIES OF PACIFIC ECHINODERM LARVAE FED NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL DIETS, Colleen A. Fox* and Sophie B. George, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458. Ingestion rates for the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus, and the sea stars Dermasterias imbricata, Pisaster ochraceus, and Evasterias troschelii were investigated by assigning larvae to three natural (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Isochrysis galbana and Rhodomonas sp.) and one artificial diet (Ziegler E-Z Larval diet) in the laboratory. For Dendraster excentricus larvae, no significant differences were observed in the volume of natural and artificial particles ingested while for S. purpuratus larvae, significant differences were observed. For S. purpuratus larvae, ingestion rates were highest for the artificial diet followed by Rhodomonas sp., Dunaliella tertiolecta and I. galbana. For all three species of sea stars, significant differences were observed in ingestion rates on natural and artificial particles. All three species ingested significantly higher volumes of the natural alga Rhodomonas sp. than the other diets. The volume of artificial particles ingested varied among seastars. Dermasterias imbricata larvae ingested significantly higher volumes of the artificial diet while P. ochraceus and E. troschelii larvae ingested significantly lower volumes of this diet. Both P. ochraceus and Dermasterias imbricata larvae ingested Dunaliella tertiolecta and I. galbana at similar rates. The differences in ingestion rates for these five echinoderm species might be due to differences in larval size and form. This is the first study documenting echinoderm larvae ingesting artificial and natural particles. The use of an artificial diet instead of natural diets has great implications for sea urchin aquaculture and embryological studies in the medical field.

NUCLEOTIDES AFFECT REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS, Sophie B. George (1), J.M. Lawrence (2), and Addison Lawrence (3), (1) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460, (2) University of South Florida, and (3) Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, 77843, The present study examined the effects of nucleotides on the reproductive output, larval growth, development, and juvenile production of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Thirty sea urchins were collected from Florida, randomly distributed into tanks, and fed one of three diets: artificial feed with 0, 5, or 10 mg nucleotides/g feed for two months. Adults fed nucleotide-enhanced diets produced significantly larger eggs than those in the control. Adults fed diets enhanced with 5 mg nucleotide/g produced large numbers of small eggs while those fed diets enhanced with 10 mg nucleotide/g produced fewer larger eggs. Larvae from adults fed nucleotide-enhanced diets were significantly larger with higher developmental rates than larvae in the controls. Adults fed diets enhanced with 5 mg nucleotides/g produced larvae with lower survival rates and a few large juveniles. Larvae from adults fed diets enhanced with 10 mg nucleotides/g produced larvae with higher survival rates and many small juveniles. This study is the first to clearly indicate the nutritional role of nucleotide-enhanced diets on the reproductive output, larval development, and juvenile production of the edible sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. It demonstrates the potential of using sea urchins as a model to study the effect of food additives and anti-nutritional factors on reproduction and development.

DIATOM DIVERSITY IN ENRICHED AND NON-ENRICHED MICROCOSMS FROM A MIDDLE GEORGIA POND**, Marisa Hadley*, Christina Schmidt, Kassie York, and Cavina Anderson, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207. The purpose of this project was to observe and record the effect of nutrient enrichment on freshwater diatom communities maintained as greenhouse microcosms. Water and sediment samples were taken from a 25-m length of littoral zone of a southern Monroe County pond in late September 2004. Eight four-gallon containers were used to create the microcosms, four of which were enriched with ecologically relevant phosphate and nitrate levels from a commercial plant fertilizer and four of which remained untreated to serve as controls. Initial phosphate and nitrate concentrations were measured prior to enrichment to establish baseline values using standard water test kits (CHEMetrics, Inc.). Thereafter, levels were determined biweekly in both the enriched and controlled microcosms. A periphyton sampler (Wildco) was floated in each microcosm for an initial three-week period to permit the establishment of a periphyton community. Next, one slide was randomly selected from each sampler for analysis on a weekly basis for the next three weeks. Slides were processed by removing the obscuring filamentous algae with a hydrogen peroxide-potassium dichromate cleansing protocol. Dried slides were examined microscopically and diatom diversity was calculated using the Sequential Comparison Index based upon a 200-diatom count. Differences between the enriched and control groups included relative biomass, percent filamentous algal composition, diatom species richness, and diatom diversity. Alan Smith served as the faculty consultant for this project and funding was provided by the Department of Biology, Mercer University.

NEUROGENESIS IN RESPONSE TO PHOTO-STIMULATION IN CRAYFISH (Procambarus clarkii) DEUTOROCEREBRUM**, Ihunanya C. Mbata*, Barry K. Rhoades, and Wanda T. Schroeder, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Neurogenesis is one mechanism underlying neuronal plasticity, which enables organisms to adapt to environmental changes and learn throughout life. Vertebrates and invertebrates share many of the physiological mechanisms that control neurogenesis; however, invertebrates have simpler organization, and larger, more identifiable neurons that make them easier to study. Enriched environments have been shown to increase neurogenesis in olfactory regions of the crayfish, the deuterocerebrum. In the present experiment, neurogenesis in the deuterocerebrum was studied in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in response to varying light patterns. Juvenile and adult crayfish were evenly distributed into a control group, exposed to 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness, and a treatment group continuously exposed to stroboscopic light flashes. Following this light exposure period, the crayfish were treated with 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine (BrdU), which is integrated into replicating DNA and serves as a mitotic marker. After dissection and cryosectioning of the brains, immunocytohistochemistry was used to visualize and quantify the extent of neurogenesis in the deuterocerebrum. BrdU was localized using primary and secondary antibodies; specifically, mouse anti-BrdU and goat anti-mouse IgG conjugated to a fluorescent marker. As a positive control, serotonin was similarly localized with rabbit anti-serotonin and goat anti-rabbit IgM conjugated to a different fluorescent marker. The experiment is in progress, and our operating hypothesis is that the crayfish in the treatment group that are exposed to a complex environment should show a greater extent of neurogenesis than the crayfish in the control group. Partial funding for the research was provided by the Munroe family of Georgia.

A POPULATION OF CYPRIPEDIUM ACAULE (PINK LADYSLIPPER) AT KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY, A. Rachel Prakash* and H.D. Sutton, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Cypripedium acaule (Pink Ladyslipper) is an orchid species native to eastern North America that is vulnerable due to ongoing habitat loss and over-collection. The Kennesaw State University campus has a mixed pine-deciduous forest patch that in the spring of 2004 contained a population of 273 C. acaule. As a baseline for a long-term study on this population, mapping of the current population was completed using standard surveying techniques. Each individual in the population was flagged with a number. In addition to the baseline survey, two short-term studies were performed. The objective of the first study was to determine if leaf size influenced flowering. After measuring leaf size for each plant, and noting whether or not it produced a flower, it was shown using a logistic regression that C. acaule 's flowering was dependent on leaf size. The second study sought to determine which, if any, abiotic factors influenced the location of growth of C. acaule individuals within the forest patch. Data collected regarding the individual clusters of orchids within the population demonstrated, by way of logistic regression, that the location of the orchids was affected by leaf litter depth, but not light, soil temperature, or soil compaction. This study represents the first year of a long-term study that is being conducted with the aim of helping to preserve this important native plant species.

LARVAL DENSITY AFFECTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS. (ECHINODERMATA: ECHINOIDEA), Carla A. Terry* and Sophie B. George, Biology Department, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Due to the high demand of sea urchin "roe," fishing industries worldwide are searching for ways to cultivate sea urchins at optimal densities in the laboratory. The present study investigated the effect of sea urchin larval density on growth and development. Eggs from two females were fertilized with sperm from a single male. A day after fertilization, two treatments with three replicates per treatment were set up; a low-density treatment with 550 larvae per jar and a high-density treatment with 1550 larvae per jar. All larvae were fed the alga Dunaliella tertiotecta, at a concentration ranging from a minimum of 4000 cells/mL to a maximum of 8000 cells/mL per day for two months. A nested analysis of variance revealed significant differences in total larval length, rudiment length, and juvenile diameter. L. variegatus larvae reared at low-density had a higher survival rate, grew bigger, developed bigger rudiments, and metamorphosed into bigger juveniles. This is an important find in sea urchin aquaculture. Commercial hatcheries could increase the yield and the size of juveniles by simply keeping the number of larvae/mL at 0.025 and feeding them a maximum of 8000 cells/mL.

GENETIC VARIATION IN MAINLAND AND ISLAND POPULATIONS OF THE GREEN TREE FROG, HYLA CINEREA, IN THE SOUTH CAROLINA LOW COUNTRY, Adam White*, Brandon Pinson*, and T. D. Schwaner, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Island models predict that finite population size and reduced migration causes reduction and eventual loss of genetic variation in natural populations. We estimated heterozygosity and allelic frequencies for four polymorphic loci, using allozyme electrophoresis, in tissue samples of the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea, representing two islands (one small and one large) and one mainland population. Results did not support expectations. Overall genetic variation was lower in the mainland population and higher on the islands. In addition to the limited coverage of island and mainland populations in this survey, and our lack of estimates of spatial and temporal effective population sizes, migration may be more limited than assumed for the mainland site.

EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE AND TEMPERATURE ON AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS IN PEANUTS, Premila Achar and Andres Sanchez, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. We investigated the effects of different substrates (potato dextrose agar [PDA], nutrient agar [NA], and corn meal agar [CMA]) and temperatures on aflatoxin production and growth in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Contaminated peanuts from retailers at different locations in Georgia were used

throughout the experiment. Two hundred seeds were selected from each sample. PDA, NA, and CMA served as the substrate to express the mold from the contaminated seeds. Seeds were plated equidistantly on each of the media and incubated at 10[degrees]C, 27[degrees]C, 30[degrees]C, and 37[degrees]C. Seeds incubated on moils filter paper served as control. Neither mold growth nor detectable levels of aflatoxin [B.sub.1] was observed at temperatures of 10[degrees]C and 37[degrees]C on amny media used. However, maximum growth of both molds, along with detectable levels of aflatoxin [B.sub.1], was attained at the temperatures of 27[degrees]C and 30[degrees]C. Of the three media tested, PDA supported vigorous growth of both Aspergillus species at temperatures of 27[degrees]C and 30[degrees]C.

THE INFLUENCE OF ELEVATION ON STOMATA DENSITY, Kamal Aderibigbe, Kimberly Bollinger*, Lesli Duvall*, Gayla, Prince*, and Mark Davis, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. We investigated the potential relationship between stomata density in tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and elevation above sea level. We collected 265 leaves from different elevations (457 m-1219 m) in four locations within a 65 km radius in northern Georgia. Impressions of stomata on the underside of each leaf were made using clear nail polish and cellophane tape. Linear regression analysis followed by ANOVA showed that mean stomata density decreased with an increase in elevation (y = -0.09x + 211.82; R2 = 0.11; F1, 263 = 31.64, P < 0.0001). The inverse relationship between elevation and stomata density could reflect enhanced carbon dioxide availability (Henry's Law) and perhaps increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Dalton's Law) at higher altitudes. In addition, fewer stomata may reflect a greater need to conserve water in the cooler, drier air found at higher elevations.

PREDATION ON APOSEMATIC AND NON-APOSEMATIC SNAKE REPLICAS IN NORTHERN GEORGIA, Brandi Barrett, Brandi Owen*, Angela Pastore, Kyle Wilbanks*, and Mark Davis, Department of Biology, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega, GA 30597. Batesian mimicry theory states that harmless, edible species resemble harmful species to reduce predation risk. By extension, mimics should not experience reduced predation in areas of allopatry where harmful models are absent. We investigated predation on replicas of non-venomous scarlet kingsnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides), which resemble aposematic venomous eastern coral snakes (Micrurus fulvius), in northern Georgia where potential predators had no previous experience with coral snakes. Plasticine models of coral snakes, scarlet kingsnakes, and non-aposematic, non-venomous eastern kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula) were placed in the wild at four locations. Models were checked for evidence of predation, usually bite marks or peck marks, each 72 h for 4 weeks. Models that were damaged by predators were reshaped and returned to their original position. Predation data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. We found no significant difference in the number of attacks among snake replicas (F2,6 = 1.77, P = 0.25). Our results parallel those of Pfennig et al. (2001) and demonstrate that protection afforded to mimics breaks down in areas where dangerous models are absent.

Section II: Chemistry

IC--417

Kenneth Martin, Presiding

9:00-12:00 Poster session

10:00 Business meeting

10:45 STEPPING OFF THE STAGE: STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING IN THE CHEMISTRY CLASSROOM, Andrew R. Bressette, Department of Chemistry, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149-5016. We recently implemented Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in several of our General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Classrooms. POGIL, a NSF sponsored curricular reform effort in chemistry education, seeks to have students build their own knowledge of chemistry by working through guided activities in small groups. In addition to developing content knowledge, students also acquire and hone process skills (such as data interpretation/extrapolation, oral and written communication, time management, etc) through their group roles. This new learning method replaces the 'sage on the stage' with a series of activities that forces students to become actively engaged in learning the material. As part of our implementation of POGIL, we used the Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG) survey to assess the impact that student centered learning had on our students. Unlike traditional course evaluations, which ask students to focus on the faculty, this comprehensive, validated assessment asks students to report where they have made gains in their own learning and skill development. A brief overview of a typical POGIL classroom will be presented followed by SALG assessment data of student performance in traditional lecture and student centered learning classrooms. Results indicate that students in the guided inquiry classrooms made significantly greater gains in most categories of the assessment than their peers in the traditional classrooms.

11:00 THE EVOLUTION OF THE RESEARCH EXPERIENCE FOR UNDERGRADUATES IN THE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT OF BERRY COLLEGE FROM 1974 TO 2004, Larry G. McRae, Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149. The number of chemistry students from Berry College presenting papers at national, regional, and state meetings, as well as being listed as co-authors on journal articles, has increased dramatically during the last decade. This increase in scholarly production must be due to an increasing richness of the research experiences available to the students. Factors--such as increasing numbers of faculty engaged in personal research, stipends for students, and improved facilities--which have led to an increasingly meaningful experience will be discussed.

11:15 USING SPARTAN TO EXPLAIN SPLITTING OF D ORBITALS IN VARIOUS CRYSTAL FIELDS, Kenneth L. Martin, Berry College, Mt. Berry, GA 30149. Textbooks of General Chemistry fairly often include (1) a figure of a central metal coordinated to a number of ligands (e.g., six ligands to form an octahedral field of ligands) and (2) an energy level diagram showing the splitting of the d orbitals. The figure requires a fair amount of imagination on the part of the novice learner of Crystal Field Theory. Therefore the static, two-dimensional figure of the complex ion is not satisfactory to convey to the student why a particular d orbital would have a certain energy relative to the other d orbitals. However, through the use of SPARTAN, "three-dimensional" representations of linear (Ge[H.sub.2.sup.2+]), square planar (Ge[H.sub.4]), tetrahedral (Ge[H.sub.4]), trigonal bipyramidal (Ge[H.sub.5.sup.-]), and octahedral (Ge[H.sub.6.sup.2-]) complex ions can be generated. Hydrogen was chosen to represent the ligands because hydrogen contributes minimally to the surfaces representing molecular orbitals. It was found that the use of germanium as the "transition metal" allowed each of the five "complexes" to have (1) their geometries minimized and (2) the surfaces representing the five d orbitals able to be displayed such that the orientations of the d orbitals are consistent with respect to each other and the ligands. Through inspection of the relative interaction of the various d orbitals with the ligands and answering a number of questions that guide their inquiry, students of General Chemistry were able to correctly deduce the relative energies of the d orbitals in each of the commonly-encountered ligand fields.

11:30 INTERACTIVE VISUAL LEAST SQUARES METHOD WITH EXCEL PROGRAM, Myung-Hoon Kim (1) and Michelle Song Kim (2), (1) Georgia Perimeter College--Dunwoody Campus, Dunwoody, GA 30338 and (2) Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309. The Least Squares Method is one of the most commonly used tools for an analysis of data in science and engineering. In this work, we developed a novel graphic method of least squares, which is based on vision, by utilizing an interactive feature of a spreadsheet program (Excel). This is accomplished by minimizing the heights of a bar graph that represent either the sum of squares of the deviation or the sum of absolutes values of the deviations. This approach was extended to a Least Absolute Method as well. Results from both methods (Least Squares vs. Least Absolutes) were compared, and found to be the same as those obtained from the Gauss Formulae (namely, for the slope and intercept for a case of linear relationship) when the correlation is high. However, the results were somewhat different, but still comparable, when the correlation is relatively low.

POSTERS

IC--Second floor lobby

EVALUATION OF THE VISCOSITY OF OKRA GUM WITH THE ADDITION OF FRUCTOSE OR SUCROSE, Jasmine M. Cook (*1), Sarah N. Bryl (1), Paul F. Cerpovicz (2), and Joelle E. Romanchik-Cerpovicz (1), (1) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 and (2) East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401. This laboratory is studying methods to maximize the viscosity of okra gum for use as a fat ingredient substitute in sweetened food products. The current study determined the effects of various concentrations of fructose or sucrose on the thickness of okra gum. Gum was obtained from fresh cut okra by boiling water extraction. A stock solution of each sugar was blended gently into okra gum to achieve final sugar concentrations of 0-400 mg/ml (0-2.2 M fructose or 0-1.2 M sucrose). Viscosities (V) of okra gum/sugar solutions were determined using a rotational viscosimeter. The effects of each concentration of sugar were reported as relative viscosity (RV) of okra gum, where

RV = [([V.sub.okra+sugar]) - ([V.sub.sugar+water])]/[V.sub.okra+water].

The addition of increasing concentrations of fructose or sucrose resulted in a continuous increase in the relative viscosity of okra gum. While relative viscosities reached 2.32 [+ or -] 0.22 and 2.66 [+ or -] 0.05 at 400 mg/ml of fructose and sucrose respectively (N = 3 for each), the relative viscosities of okra gum containing either sugar were not significantly different at any concentration of sugar tested. On a molar basis, sucrose showed a much greater effect than fructose, suggesting that the molecular size difference between sucrose (342 g/mol) and fructose (180 g/mol) influences the positive effect that each sugar has on the viscosity of okra gum.

THE SYNTHESIS OF LACTONES VIA BAEYER-VILLIGER OXIDATION BY MICROWAVE AND SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS**, Mayisha Ealey* and Nripendra Bose, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. The production of lactones, critical components in disease prevention and medicine, is described by Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation under solvent-free and microwave conditions. The advantageous conditions surrounding microwave and solid-state synthesis of lactones will be discussed. Research funding is provided by the NASA-WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) program at Spelman College.

A SPETROSCOPIC STUDY OF ELECTROYTE EFFECTS ON ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN CONFIGURATION**, Kamika Felder*, Candis Mayweather*, and Lisa Hibbard, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30314. The primary protein component in the ocular lens, alpha-crytallin, is known to play a major role in maintaining lens transparency. Recent studies have shown that alpha-crystallin prevents the aggregation of other lens proteins by acting as a molecular chaperone. Although the mechanism of the chaperone-like behavior is unknown, there is evidence that alpha-crystallin acts by exposing its hydrophobic regions to interact with damaged proteins. It is therefore, of interest to study the configuration of alpha-crystallin samples in the presence of varying NaCl and Ca[Cl.sub.2] concentrations (0.5 M-1.0 M) at temperatures ranging from 35[degrees] to 65[degrees]C. Tryptophan residue fluorescence was monitored to determine the extent of photolysis. ANS-binding studies and acrylamide fluorescene queching studies yielded information regarding changes in protein configuration. Circular dichroism monitored changes in protein secondary structure.

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND LUMINESCENCE STUDIES OF LANTHANIDE(III) COMPLEXES**, Zewdu Gebeyehu (1), Hirofumi Motegi (*1), and David E. Zelmon (2), (1) Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907 and (2) Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433. Lanthanide(III) complexes are of much interest because of their photoluminescence properties that make them important in a variety of applications such as light-emitting diodes, in biomedical imaging and optical amplification. In this study three lanthanide metal complexes were synthesized, to produce materials that have luminescence and waveguide properties. The synthesis was achieved by the reaction of lanthanide metal salts, M[Cl.sub.3]a6[H.sub.2]O (M = Sm, Eu, Gd) with a chelating ligand, potassium dithioimidodiphosphine (K[N(PP[h.sub.2]S)[.sub.2]]) in methanol. The reactions resulted in the formation of white powder in high yields for all the three metals. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods and melting points. All these results suggested the formation of the expected complexes, M([N(PP[h.sub.2]S)[.sub.2]])[.sub.3]. The fluorescence property study of the europium complex in THF gave an excitation band at [[lambda].sub.max] = 312 nm and emission band at [[lambda].sub.max] = 364 nm.

MOLECULAR MODELING STUDIES OF CONFORMATIONALLY CONSTRAINED ANALOGS OF MEFLOQUINE, Al M. Panu and Shylah Kirch*, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Geometry optimization of each of the lowest energy conformations for the eight stereoisomers of the proposed antimalarial (1) using the semiempirical AM1 methods as implemented in the SPARTAN molecular modeling package have been calculated. The geometries were also used to calculate such properties as molecular electrostatic potential, dipole moment, proton affinity and frontier molecular orbital energies. Comparison of these properties to those of the active enantiomer of mefloquine and predictions of relative antimalarial activity of the stereoisomers of 1 are discussed.

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SYNTHESIS OF 2,7-DISUBSTITUTED-3-((E/Z)-PENTA-2,4-DIENYL)-QUINOLINE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID, Al M. Panu, Bhavin Patel*, and Madeleine Ndomo*, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The title compound is needed as a precursor in the synthesis of conformationally constrained analogues of the antimalarial compound mefloquine. The strategy for the synthesis of this quinoline derivative involves the use of the Pfitzinger reaction starting with suitably substituted isatin and (E/Z)-hepta-4,6-dienal which was in turn synthesized starting from divinylcarbinol. The overall synthesis strategy and the characterization of the intermediate compounds by IR, NMR and MS will be discussed.

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

COMPARISON OF FATTY ACID LIGANDS IN HUMAN HNF4- ACTIVITY AND ITS ROLE IN DIABETES**, Allen Stokes* and Karen Duda, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4-[alpha] (HNF4-[alpha]) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily whose ligand is in current debate. Mature-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Youth (MODY) and other forms of Diabetes have been genetically linked to the HNF4 gene. Previous x-ray structures have revealed the presence of a fatty acid in the HNF4 ligand binding domain (HNF4 LBD). The HNF4-[alpha] x-ray structure contains both the open and closed forms HNF4-[alpha]. In the open form, the helix [alpha]12 is linear with helix [alpha]10, allowing access to the fatty acid ligand and preventing the binding of coactivators. The closed form restricts access to the ligand but allows the formation of a coactivator binding site. Since HNF4 has not been isolated without a fatty acid, we need to obtain the HNF4 ligand binding domain without a fatty acid in order to study the effects of various ligands and drugs. Using protein folding methods, HNF4 will be folded and its functionality will be tested through the comparison of HNF4 without a ligand to HNF4 with a fatty acid ligand. We have cloned, expressed, and purified the ligand binding domain of HNF4. HNF4-[alpha] LBD will be denatured and the ligands removed by extensive dialysis. We will then refold HNF4 in the absence of ligand and perform functionality studies.

Section III: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

IC--421

Mark Groszos, Presiding

8:30 A WATER QUALITY TREND STUDY OF THE YAHOOLA CREEK RESERVOIR AND ITS TRIBUTARIES, Jason Ryncarz and Robert Fuller, North Georgia College & State University, Dahlonega GA 30597. Yahoola Creek reservoir was constructed during the period 1999-2001 to serve as a major source of drinking water for most of Lumpkin County Georgia. This study was conducted to assess the water quality of the reservoir and its tributaries. Samples were collected and the following tests were conducted: alkalinity, ammonium nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform bacteria, hardness, nitrate, pH, total solids, and turbidity. These tests were modeled after R. Fullers research of Lake Lanier and the Vernier Water quality testing series. The data was taken once a week from January to April 2004. The results of this study showed that the impact of the reservoir construction might have a lasting effect on the water supply and local aquatic life and that Ward Creek, one of the two major tributaries to the reservoir, contributes more bacteria and sediment to the reservoir than the other tributary Yahoola Creek.

8:45 THE AFFECT OF STORMS ON WATER QUALITY OF STREAMS OF WEST GEORGIA,** Eric G. Phillips and Curtis L. Hollabaugh, Department of Geosciences, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Water quality monitoring of the Little Tallapoosa River and Central Campus Branch, a tributary creek that drains the central campus of UWG was conducted up to five times a week. Samplings began in August 2004. The Little Tallapoosa watershed is a mix of farmland, forest, small towns, and light industry. The watershed serves as the major source of drinking water for the city of Carrollton. The watershed is undergoing rapid residual development. Central Campus Branch drains an area consisting of buildings, roads, parking lots, sidewalks, recreational fields and lawns. Near its confluence with the river is a weir where samples are collected and flow is measured. The passage of major storms including the remnants of two hurricanes provided some significant rain events. Parameters measured include specific conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite-N. The first tropical storm produced 3.5 inches of rain in three days and river and creek turbidities of 75 and 240 NTU, respectively. This storm lowered the creek's specific conductivity from ~80 to 35 mS/cm. Recovery to background turbidity and specific conductivity after a major rain event takes about five days for Campus Creek. The Little Tallapoosa River requires over seven days returning to pre-storm turbidity levels. When rainfall events follow at close intervals the Little Tallapoosa River may not return to baseflow turbidity conditions for several weeks. The pH levels are lowered for 1-3 days after a major storm.

9:00 SEDIMENTATION IN VESICLES; INTERPRETATION OF GEOPETAL FABRICS IN AMYGDALOIDAL AGATES**, Jake L. Holloway and Timothy M. Chowns, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. Agates derived from lava vesicles consist of silica in several habits; opal, chalcedony and quartz. We investigate these various fabrics under light and electron microscope using etched thin sections. It is inferred that silica diffuses into the vesicles from the surrounding lava via capillary water. Microcrystalline chalcedony (length fast) occurs as thinly laminated isopachous, radiaxial fringes throughout vesicles, suggesting multiple seeding in vadose, capillary water films (meniscus cement). Drusy quartz (length slow) occurs as late fillings on cavity walls. Crystals are larger, unlaminated, with fewer nucleation points and appear to have grown in less concentrated solutions, below the water table. Most interesting are deposits of geopetal agate occupying the bottoms of cavities. These are derived from both colloidal precipitates (opal) and fibrous crystals (chalcedony) in vesicles only partly filled by water. Horizontal laminae are mantled by botryoidal chalcedony, sometimes growing both up and down from the surface. Small-scale druses commonly occur between laminae. Botryoidal chalcedony is continuous with radiaxial fringes on vesicle walls but seeded intermittently. The fabric suggests that crystals were growing at the interface between liquid and gas either supported by surface tension or possibly seeded on rafts of bubbles. This interpretation is reinforced by the occurrence of unusual palisade structures associated with fluctuating water levels.

9:15 Break

9:30 THE MINERAL HERITAGE PROJECT--A CALL TO ACTION TO PRESERVE MINERAL OCCURANCES IN THE STATE OF GEORGIA, David Babulski, Georgia Mineral Society, Atlanta, GA 30333-5011. Daily each of us witnesses the destruction of our precious mineral heritage. With each new strip mall, each new housing development, our environment is changed. As the hills are bulldozed away and as the ground is built upon and paved over, a page of Georgia mineral history is lost. The purpose of the Mineral Heritage Project is to accurately document in detail mineral occurrences within the state of Georgia. A site research and documentation protocol is used to ensure complete and consistent documentation of: (1) Geography, (2) Geology, (3) Minerals, and (4) Detailed photographs of the mineral occurrence and of representative mineral samples. Guidelines are supplied on how to assemble a Mineral Heritage documentation package that will be cataloged and stored at a controlled site for use by future generations of students and workers in the earth sciences. This paper is "Call to Action" on the part of the professional and academic earth science communities to participate and assist with the Mineral Heritage Project. At present, the Georgia Mineral Society and the South-East Chapter Friends of Mineralogy sponsor the Mineral heritage Project. An example documentation package on the "Minerals of the Wolf Creek Formation--Norcross Quadrangle, Duluth, Georgia" is included in the presentation.

9:45 A UNIQUE OPEN FRAME GIMBAL VARIATION OF THE MICROSCOPE UNIVERSAL STAGE FOR USE WITH MINERAL PHOTOMICROGRAPHY AND MINERAL ANALYSIS, David Babulski, Georgia Mineral Society, Atlanta, Georgia, 30333-5011. A five degree of freedom open frame gimbaled mechanical stage loosely based on the Universal Stage used in optical mineralogy has been built using readily available and low cost materials. Similar in form to commercially available stacked 3 axis goniometers, the open frame gimbal stage provides 360[degrees] rotation in azimuth and rotation through 90[degrees] in rotational x and rotational y directions at a fraction of the cost of commercial stacked goniometers. The microscope is attached to a device that affords linear motion in the x and y directions. All axes are calibrated in five-degree intervals to afford repeatability in positioning a specimen in three dimensions under the microscope. This gimbal stage is currently used for mineral photomicrography and optical mineral analysis. A discussion of the innovative use of light emitting diodes as microscope light sources at various wavelengths is included with the report. A set of detailed engineering drawings of the open frame gimbal stage is also included.

10:00 Business meeting

10:30 TEMPORAL VARIATION OF LEACHABLE METALS IN COASTAL SOILS OF GEORGIA, Gian S. Ghuman, S. Paramasivam, and Kenneth S. Sajwan, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Dissolved metals in the surface runoff water and in the water extracts of two coastal soils (sandy and loamy textures) were analyzed twice with an interval of 16 years. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of released major and trace metals on the quality of coastal waters and achieve better management of soil fertility. These two soils were grasslands and their adjacent forest areas near Chatham-Effingham County line in Coastal Georgia. Water-soluble major and trace metals were analyzed through ICP-OES. The results of this study showed a decrease in soil pH, Ca, Mg, K and Zn concentrations and increase in Na concentrations in the present samples compared to soils from the same location analyzed sixteen years ago.

10:45 CLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS OF 52 YEARS OF ICE-MARGIN LOSS IN SELECTED GLACIERS OF THE BEARTOOTH PLATEAU IN SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA, Edward E. Chatelain, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. A recent aerial survey taken in August 2004 revealed further significant ice-margin loss in many of the largest glaciers of the Beartooth Plateau. Proximal SNOTEL sites provided the needed snow-water equivalent data and maximum and minimum temperature data to document annual snow coverage days and temperatures present after snow melt-out. 38 years of water equivalent data from Fisher Creek SNOTEL (elev. 9100, 4.8 mi. from Grasshopper Glacier) indicates a trend of decreasing number of total snow coverage days and an equally dramatic increase in the number of days with no snow coverage. 23 years of temperature data from the Fisher Creek and 20 years of data from the Beartooth Lake (elev. 9280, 9 mi. from Castle Rock Glacier) SNOTEL stations indicate declining summer average maximum temperatures but strongly increasing summer minimum temperatures responsible for the continual ice-margin decline initiated by the low precipitation/high temperature 1987, 1991, and 1994 El Nino events.

11:00 LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND GLOBAL ISSUES EMPLOYING READING, WRITING, REEFS, ROCK IGUANAS AND RUM, Beth Rushing, Dwight Call and Melanie DeVore Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Environmental issues cover an immense range of topics within both the natural and social sciences. Unfortunately, introductory courses with content focused on environmental issues are often taught as environmental science. Many of the issues addressed in Introduction to Environmental Science at GC & SU, such as human population growth, urbanization and human impact on the environment at a global level, directly interface with one of our required core courses, Global Issues. In May of 2004 both Environmental Science and Global issues were cluster taught as part of the GC & SU People and Ecosystems of San Salvador Island study abroad program at the Gerace Research Center. Unlike New Providence, San Salvador is a small, outer family island. Because of its size, San Salvador provides students and faculty with an unparalleled opportunity to both interact with the residents and critically assess specific environmental issues impacting the island. The program is structured so that students complete some required readings and assignments before the program begins. This enables the faculty to utilize the locality during the day and lecture at night. Evaluation is largely based on keeping a journal containing observations, assignments and reflections. The journal also serves as a means for maintaining a personal dialogue between the instructors and students. The combination of both Environmental Science and Global Issues taught in an international setting result in students grasping the complexity of human interactions with the environmental.

11:15 PHOTO-MOSAICS AND PHOTO CLUSTERS-WIDENING THE HISTORICAL GEOLOGIST'S WINDOW INTO THE PAST, Edward E. Chatelain and Cecilia S. Barnbaum, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Valdosta State University's website http://www.valdosta.edu/phy/hist_geo_lab has been recently supplemented by extensive photographic documentation in the West Temple, Utah, Palisades, Utah, and Boysen Peak, Wyoming geological study areas. As a result, a new section entitled "Gallery" was added. Each "Gallery" window begins with a small-scale aerial photograph obtained from http://terraserver.microsoft.com, which serves as an index map for the photo-clusters taken within the study area. Several larger-scale aerial photos then serve as location maps for each photo cluster. Photo mosaics from both aerial and groundbased color slide photography have replaced individual slide frames where possible, because wide-field composites greatly enhance the visualization of regional stratigraphic and structural relationships. Formational contacts, unconformities, faults, and folds have then been drawn upon these mosaics, and are revealed by clicking successive icons. Where close-up detail is required, single frames continue to provide the ultimate zoom-lens effect. The impact of this section is that it connects the world of aerial photographs (maps) and ground/aerial color slide photography accessible to the student with the abstract world of delineated

11:30 A NEW WINDOW INTO VALDOSTA STATE UNIVERSITY'S VIRTUAL FOSSIL MUSEUM, Edward E. Chatelain and Cecilia S. Barnbaum, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Valdosta State University's Virtual Fossil Museum website http://fossils.valdosta.edu recently opened a second window entitled: "Find an Animal". This portal displays the taxonomic assignments and relative distributions for the more than 400 fossil specimens pictured at the site in the context of their geologic ranges. The first level designates the basic subdivisions of fossil procaryotes, Single-Celled eucaryotes, invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants. Secondary taxonomic assignments for each subdivision are then displayed, with some further representations made down to the familial level. By clicking the geologic range configurations at this level, the individual generic names will appear superimposed upon the total geologic range of their taxonomic group. Clicking a single genus name will then locate the specimen photographs as in the "Choose a Time" window. The "Find an Animal" portal provides the geologic range configuration for the taxonomic group containing each fossil specimen represented in the Virtual Museum. This display provides important information regarding both the taxonomic and evolutionary affinities each fossil featured at the site.

POSTERS

IC--Second floor lobby

DESIGN OF A THERMOCOUPLE-BASED SOIL THERMOMETER, Richard P. Faucett and Eric C. Brevik, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 21698-0055. The design of a simple, inexpensive soil thermometer will be presented. Components of the thermometer include Type-T thermocouple wires and connectors, 2" and 3" diameter PVC pipe and glue, #10[ohm] one-hole rubber stoppers, dry sand, and all-weather caulking. A main PVC pipe is cut to the desired length using the 2" diameter pipe. Holes are drilled and routed to allow the thermocouple wires to be set at the required depths relative to a reference point marked on the main pipe. When the thermometer is installed, it is pushed into the soil until the reference point is at ground level, meaning that each hole represents the soil depth at which temperature is taken. The thermocouple wires are set into the routed holes and held in place with all-weather caulk. After the caulk sets the pipe is backfilled with dry sand, which acts as insulation and prevents the pipe from floating if set below the water table. A #10[ohm] stopper is placed over the top opening with the wires running through the hole. Caulk is placed around the wires and the edges of the stopper, and a 2" to 3" adapting collar glued over the stopper. A short piece of 3" diameter PVC is glued onto the collar to act as a storage area for the Type-T connectors. Placing a 3" PVC cap over the storage area to protect the thermocouple connectors from the elements finishes off the thermometer.

GEOMORPHIC CHANGES TO BARRIER ISLANDS NEAR PENSACOLA DUE TO HURRICANE IVAN, Katrina M. Pate, Eric C. Brevik, and Paul C. Vincent, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Hurricanes have been shown to create significant geomorphic change on barrier islands. Hurricane Ivan came ashore between Pensacola, FL and Mobile, AL as a strong Category 3 hurricane. Georeferenced pre-hurricane aerial photographs of the barrier islands off the Escambia and Santa Rosa County coast of Florida were used to georeference post-hurricane aerial photographs from NOAA. Pre and post-hurricane photos were then compared using ArcGIS 8.X to determine how the islands were altered by the storm. Geomorphic processes involved were then interpreted. Results of this study will be presented.

GEOMORPHIC CHANGES TO BARRIER ISLANDS NEAR PENSACOLA DUE TO HURRICANE IVAN, Katrina M. Pate, Eric C. Brevik, and Paul C. Vincent, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698-0055. Hurricanes have been shown to create significant geomorphic change on barrier islands. Hurricane Ivan came ashore between Pensacola, FL and Mobile, AL as a strong Category 3 hurricane. Georeferenced pre-hurricane aerial photographs of the barrier islands off the Escambia and Santa Rosa County coast of Florida were used to georeference post-hurricane aerial photographs from NOAA. Pre and post-hurricane photos were then compared using ArcGIS 8.X to determine how the islands were altered by the storm. Geomorphic processes involved were then interpreted. Results of this study will be presented.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN LAKE LOUISE, SOUTHERN GEORGIA, Angela Wall (1), Amie Leandro (2), Eric C. Brevik (1), James A. Hyatt (2), and Gary L. Wood (1), (1) Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 21698 and (2) Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, CT 06226. Sequestration of carbon in various environments has been proposed as one potential way to address rising levels of C[O.sub.2] in the atmosphere. Several studies have shown that lake sediments can be efficient places to sequester carbon, and small lakes are particularly effective. This study looks at the sequestration of carbon in the sediments of Lake Louise, a small (~13 acre) lake located in Lowndes County, Georgia. Sediments were cored during the summer of 2004 using a piston corer at 3 locations along a lake-wide transect. Cores were sampled for bulk density using samples of known volume and carbon was determined using a Perkins-Elmer CHN analyzer and compared with loss on ignition (LOI) carbon concentrations from previously collected sediment cores. Ongoing analyses indicate that organic carbon concentrations are significantly depleted (<20% by dry weight LOI) and dry bulk densities are increased (by up to a factor of 10) in the uppermost 15 cm of the sediment column as compared to deeper sediments (to 3.3 m below the lake bed). These changes can be confidently attributed to influx of inorganic sediments to the lake following nearby highway construction. Carbon concentrations increase on average by nearly a factor of 3 below these sediments. All findings suggest relatively high amounts of carbon sequestration per unit volume of sediment relative to terrestrial environments.

Section IV: Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Technology

IC--321

Andreas Lazari, Presiding

8:00 STUDENT STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF STUDENT EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE FACILITY (SERF) AT REINHARDT COLLEGE, Richard Summers, Reinhardt College, Waleska, GA 30183. Several years ago a successful writing laboratory was established at Reinhardt College. In 2002, the college faculty decided to extend the services of the lab to include all academic subjects offered at the college. I decided to have my introductory statistics class analyze two questions related to the lab. (1) Has overall usage of the lab increased in the time period since its use was extended to include subjects other than writing? (2) Have significant numbers of students begun to use the lab for assistance in subjects other than writing? Students are expected to produce a written report and give an in-class presentation. In this way my statistics students learn to perform statistical analysis on a real-world problem and present their results in an organized and convincing manner. I present the results of several student analyses and compare them to my own assessment of the lab. From my experience over several semesters, the project has proven to be a valuable teaching tool.

8:15 THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS, Gary Lewellen, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. An introductory exposition of the mathematical and historical features of one of the most famous unsolved problems in all of mathematics; history, number theory, and complex analysis frame Riemann's conjecture; the result is an indication of why this problem is still important today. A true Riemann hypothesis would shed much light on the distribution of the primes and would hence be of great importance in the number theory that has been employed in cryptology. Riemann's hypothesis has inspired parallel conjectures in algebra and even has a counterpart in the mathematics of particle physics. This exposition gives a sketch of both the background of Riemann's historic paper and the mathematics it contains.

8:30 DO STUDENTS IN COLLEGE ALGEBRA PERFORM BETTER IN A THREE DAY LECTURE VERSUS A TWO DAY LECTURE, Andreas Lazari, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. One course that draws attention at the university level is college algebra. It is perceived by the students to be one of the most difficult courses in college. Students take the class three and four time before they succeed. Universities are introducing new ways of teaching college algebra hoping to improve the student's success in this course. At our university we are facing the same problem. We decided to compare a three-day lecture class against a two-day class. We believed that because of the nature of the material, shorter lectures more frequently, like three-day classes, would be more successful than two-day classes with longer lectures less frequently. We also believed that students in three-day classes would have higher retention rates than those in two day classes. Data was collected over a period of four years and analyzed. Findings indicate that students have higher success and retention rates in the three day lecture classes.

8:45 INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE SUCCESS OF STUDENTS IN MATH 1113, PRE-CALCULUS, DeWitt More and Teresa Betkowski, Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. Statistics were collected and analyzed from Summer 2003 through Spring 2004 to examine the performance of students who completed MATH 1113, Pre-Calculus. The study focused on a comparison of former MATH 1101, Introduction to Mathematical Modeling, students to MATH 1111, College Algebra, students who completed MATH 1113, Pre-Calculus. The researchers also collected data on students who completed MATH 1113 taking neither MATH 1101 nor MATH 1111. The study showed that former MATH 1101 and MATH 1111 students performed about the same in MATH 1113 with a mean grade point average of 2.0. Students who did not take either MATH 1101 or MATH 1111 had a mean grade point average of 1.7. The researchers concluded that taking MATH 1101 or MATH 1111 is the best first-step for most of their students.

9:00 PHOTOELECTRIC MAGNITUDE MEASUREMENTS OF THE LUNAR ECLIPSES ON MAY 16, 2003 AND OCT. 28, 2004, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. The Moon's brightness dropped by 10.73 and 10.61 magnitudes during the total lunar eclipses on May 16, 2003 and Oct. 28, 2004 respectively. These magnitude drops are close to the corresponding value for the January, 2000 total lunar eclipse. It is concluded that the atmosphere was moderately transparent during 2003 and 2004.

9:15 BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENTS OF SATURN IN LATE 2004, Richard W. Schmude, Jr., Gordon College, 419 College Dr., Barnesville, GA 30204. The writer measured the brightness of Saturn during November of 2004. The B, V, R and I magnitudes of Saturn plus rings on Nov. 15 were: 1.02, 0.00, -0.70 and -0.90 respectively. It is concluded that the color of Saturn has not changed during the past year; however Saturn has become a little dimmer due to the rings beginning to close up.

9:30 SURPRISES ON URANUS, Richard W. Schmude, Jr. Gordon College, Barnesville, GA 30204. Members of the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers have observed two surprising developments on Uranus, which are a bright South Polar Region and a drop in the brightness of Uranus. It is concluded that the drop in brightness is due to the bright South Polar Region shifting away from the Earth

9:45 AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO SOLVE THE "15-PUZZLE?" K. C. Chan, Albany State University, Albany, GA 31705. The 15-puzzle is a 4 X 4 frame that contains 15 sequentially numbered tiles and one hole. The objective of the game is to order the numbered tiles either by rows or by columns, moving only one tile at a time within the frame. Conventionally, to solve the puzzle, one moves 15 tiles by trial and error until a solution is found. It is quite a challenge to generalize a pattern of 15 shifting tiles that can lead to a solution. In contrast, by borrowing the "hole" concept from solid-state physics, a more efficient means of solving the 15-puzzle may be found by moving the missing tile (the "hole") among 15 seemingly stationary tiles. Let [T.sub.ij] be the current position of a tile in an n X m grid and [T.sub.ab] be its targeted position to traverse from ij to ab, where ij and ab are the i-th row and j-th column and a-th row and b-th column of the grid respectively. The role of the hole, amazingly, is to render the move of the tile from [T.sub.ij] to [T.sub.ab] possible through a number of possible square-lattice pathways. Hence, the 15-puzzle is actually a square-lattice walker problem. The real challenge in solving the 15-puzzle is to determine the minimum number of steps necessary to achieve a sequenced ordering of the 15 tiles. The strategies to find a shortest path, the minimum number of shortest paths, and the distribution of the pathways will be discussed. It can be concluded that the "hole" concept from physics may lead to a new means of solving the 15-puzzle.

10:00 Business meeting

10:30 A BINARY REPRESENTATION OF THE GEOMETRY OF SPACETIME, Dennis W. Marks, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. Geometric (Clifford) algebra provides a description of various geometrical elements (points, lines, planes, volumes, etc.) generated by n basis vectors. Depending on the signatures (+1 for space-like, -1 for time-like) of the basis vectors, the geometric algebra is isomorphic to matrices of reals R, complex numbers C, or quaternions H. In two dimensions, the geometric algebra is isomorphic to H if both basis vectors are time-like (forming a time-like plane); it is isomorphic to 2X2 matrices of reals R(2) either if both basis vectors are space-like (forming the time-like Euclidean plane) or if one basis vector is space-like and one basis vector is time-like (forming the space-like Minkowskian plane). The Euclidean case can be expressed with trigonometric functions and the Minkowskian case with hyperbolic functions. Because the real range of the hyperbolic cosine used to describe vectors in the Minkowskian plane has only one point in common with the real range of the cosine used to describe vectors in the Euclidean plane, the matrix representation of the geometric algebra that can describe both the Euclidean plane and the Minkowskian plane is unique. The four geometric elements (1 point, 2 lines, and 1 plane) in each case can be expressed with four 2X2 matrices whose non-zero elements are either the same (+1) or different (-1) on either the major axis or the minor axis. The direct product of the matrices of the two 2-dimensional geometries (the Euclidean plane and the Minkowskian plane) generates a matrix representation of four-dimensional Minkowskian space-time.

10:45 A CONVENIENT GENERAL ANGLE FORMULA FOR THE PERIOD OF A PENDULUM, J. E. Hasbun, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. It is generally accepted that the period of a pendulum for small initial angles, [[theta].sub.0], of less than about 0.26 radians ([+ or -]15[degrees]) is reasonably described by [[tau].sub.0] = 2[pi][square root of l/g] (1). However, for larger angles the period deviates well above this and the general result [tau] = 2([[tau].sub.0]/[pi]) [[integral].sub.0.sup.[pi]/2] d[phi]/[1 - [k.sup.2] [sin.sup.2][phi]] (2), where k = sin ([[theta].sub.0] [congruent to] 2), has to be used. One can use this integral's Taylor series to make approximations to the actual period with an accuracy that depends on the value of [[theta].sub.0] and the number of terms used in the Taylor series expansion. The different approach of using successive approximations to the solution of the pendulum's differential equation for which sin([theta]) [+ or -] [theta] - [[theta].sup.3] / 3! obtains a simple formula for the period that goes beyond the usual [[tau].sub.0] but less accurate than the fourth order term in k in the Taylor expansion of (2). This presentation makes use of this successive approximations result to motivate the simple approximation to the pendulum's period in the form [tau] = [[tau].sub.0] / [square root of 1 - [[theta].sub.0.sup.2]/a] (3), with a = 8.563. It is demonstrated that this result is more accurate than including terms in the Taylor expansion of (2) up to 6th order in k. This renders (3) a useful empirical formula for the period of a pendulum for initial angles between 0 and [pi]/2.

11:00 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A LNEAR OSCILLATOR HAVING "VOLLEYBALL AERODYNAMICS DRAG" DAMPING, Kale Oyedeji (1), S.A. Rucker (2) and R.E. Mickens (3), (1) Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA 30314-3773, (2,3) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. The standard simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) provides a good first approximation to many phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. The inclusion of linear damping extends even further its applicability to a broader class of dynamical systems. We present preliminary work on a SHO with damping term expressed as a velocity dependent suitable for modeling "volleyball aerodynamic drag." This type of damping force increases at low speeds, but suddenly becomes small when the speed exceeds a certain critical value; see SCIENCE, vol. 306, 1 October 2004, pp. 42. Our numerical simulations indicate that the behavior of this oscillator has major features that differ in comparison with the damped SHO. This work was supported by funds from DOE and the MBRS-SCORE Program at Clark Atlanta University.

POSTERS

IC--Second floor lobby

STRENGTH EVALUATION OF POROUS AND BRITTLE MATERIALS USING ULTRASONIC AND FINITE ELEMENT METHODS**, Barry Hojjatie, Kathryn Hall, and Steven McDonald, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. This study investigates on application of ultrasonic techniques in measurements of mechanical properties of two different types of materials. First, the stiffness properties of paper materials will be investigated, and then ceramic materials used in fabrication of dental restorations will be analyzed. Paper industry that employs more than ten percent of our state's manufacturing workforce, ranks one of the Georgia's top manufacturing industries. This industry often relies on labor-intensive methods of mechanical testing for screening of their products. This study reports on successful measurement of paper stiffness properties using ultrasonic method. In the second part, we will report on application ultrasonic techniques in determination of elastic modulus and Poisson's ratios of dental ceramic materials. An ultrasonic sensor available at Georgia Tech was employed for measurements. Interestingly, this ultrasonic sensor has been originally designed for measurements of paper properties; however, this study shows that the sensor is also capable in accurately measuring the stiffness properties of the dental ceramics. Mean value of Young's Modulus corresponding to ten measurements on each of three porcelain samples were 83.2, 81.7, and 83.2 GPa, respectively. The corresponding coefficient of variability values were 1.80%, 1.93% and 0.96% respectively. The results were consistent with the reported values in published literature.

Section V: Biomedical Sciences

IC--319

Pamela Moolenaar-Wirsiy, Presiding

7:30 NOVEL APPROACHES FOR VACCINE DELIVERY AGAINST STDs, F. O. EKO (1), Q. He (1), G. Ifere (1), G. Ananaba, (2) D. Lyn, (1) C. Black, (3) J. U. Igietseme (3); (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, 30310, (2) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta 30314; and (3) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA 30333. Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) rank among the highest sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world. The availability of a combination vaccine that can be administered as a single regimen to protect against multiple infections would be highly desirable. Designing efficacious vaccines against Chlamydia and genital herpes would require the development of effective delivery vehicles capable of eliciting the immune effectors relevant for long-term protection. The recombinant Vibrio cholerae ghost (rVCG) is a novel bacterial ghost delivery system with inherent adjuvant properties and capable of simultaneously delivering multiple antigens from the same or different pathogens to the immune system. rVCGs expressing the chlamydial outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the HSV-2 envelope protein, gD2 were produced by the expression of protein-encoding genes and subsequent lysis of cells by cloned *174 gene E. The expression of both proteins was detected by immunoblotting analyses. In addition, immunologic analysis indicated that intramuscular immunization of naive mice with recombinant ghosts induced a strong T helper type1 (Th1) response against target antigens. The degree of protection conferred by the combination vaccine against both pathogens is a function of the level of specific Th1 response elicited against each organism. Thus, a combination vaccine regimen can simultaneously protect against multiple organisms if adequate immune effectors are elicited against the individual pathogens.

8:00 EXPRESSION OF KERATINOCYTE TRANSGLUTAMINASE (TGASE1) IN VAGINAL EPITHELIUM OF MICE DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF ESTROUS**, Yo-Leigh A. Gardner, A. B. Redwood and W. T. Schroeder, Wesleyan College, Macon, GA 31210. Keratinocyte transglutaminase, TGase1, is essential to the formation of the cornified layer of the epidermis and is usually expressed during the latter stages of keratinocyte differentiation. While extensive research has been performed to assess the role that this protein plays in normal skin development, studies have not yet been preformed to investigate TGase1 expression in hormone-responsive epithelia such as vaginal tissue. The purpose of this study is to determine the expression pattern of keratinocyte transglutaminase in the mouse vagina at each stage of the estrous cycle. After determining the stage of estrous cycle of sexually mature virgin female mice, tissue sections were obtained for the various stages and processed via immuno-histochemistry. The vaginal tissue sections were mounted on glass slides, air-dried and fixed with acetone-methanol (1:1, v/v) for 1 minute. Subsequently sections were rinsed and blocked with PBS/1%BSA for 15 minutes, followed by incubation for 1 hour with a rat monoclonal TGase1 antibody in PBS/0.15% Triton X-100/1%BSA. Sections were then incubated for 1 hour with goat anti-rat IgG in PBS/0.15% Triton X-100/1%BSA and mounted in 90% glycerol/PBS. Afterwards, TGase1 expression was determined utilizing fluorescence microscopy.

8:15 THE EFFECT OF ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID ON GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS IN ORYZIAS LATIPES EMBRYOS**, Uschi Auguste and Holly Boettger-Tong, Wesleyan College, Macon GA 31210. Retinoic acid is a potent derivative of Vitamin A that affects vertebrate physiological processes such as cell growth and differentiation, morphogenesis, and development. Retinoic-acid mediated gene activation is important for normal vertebrate development; however, when embryonic exposure to retinoids is higher than normal, developmental anomalies occur. The retinoic acid isomer being used in this study is all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). ATRA binds to retinoic acid receptors (RARs) that are transcription factors, thereby affecting gene expression. Previous studies have indicated that treatment of embryos with retinoic acid caused defects in cardiac morphology. In the current study, messenger RNA (mRNA) will be obtained from cardiac tissue of embryos that have been treated with 100nm of ATRA in the neurula stage of development. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), gene expression from the tissue of the treated embryos will be compared with that of control embryos in an attempt to begin to uncover the mechanism by which retinoid treatment interferes with heart formation in Medaka. As the basic pattern of heart formation in Medaka is similar to that in other vertebrates, this information may be useful for understanding cardiac abnormalities in other species, including man.

8:30 ESTROGEN INDUCED EXPRESSION OF KERATINOCYTE TRANSGLUTAMINASE IN RAT VAGINAL EPITHELIUM** Abena B. Redwood, Y. Gardner and W.T. Schroeder, Wesleyan College, Macon GA 31210. Expression of keratinocyte transglutaminase, TGase-1, occurs in differentiated layers of epidermal tissue and influences the cornification of the outermost layers of keratinocytes. While TGase1 expression has been investigated in epidermis, little is known of its expression pattern in hormone-responsive epithelia including uterine and vaginal tissues. This study was designed to determine the expression pattern of TGase-1 protein in rat vaginal epithelium at different time points post estrogen administration. Ovariectomized rats received an initial dose of estrogen followed by the collection of vaginal tissue at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 hours post injection. Frozen sections from each time point were prepared, mounted on glass slides, and air dried followed by fixation in acetone-methanol (1:1). Sections were then blocked in PBS containing 1% BSA and incubated with anti-mouse TGase-1 monoclonal antibody diluted in PBS/0.15% Triton X-100/1% BSA. Subsequent rinses in PBS/0.15% Triton X-100/1% BSA were followed by incubation with FITC-conjugated goat anti-rat IgG secondary antibody. Sections were then mounted in 90% glycerol/PBS and TGase1 expression was determined using fluorescence microscopy.

8:45 METHEMOGLOBIN AND SKELETAL MEMBRANE PROTEIN ALTERATIONS IN RAT ERYTHROCYTES EXPOSED TO PARA-IODOPHENYLHYDROXYLAMINE, Harriett King, Harpal Singh, Elissa T. Purnell and Melva Coles Bostick, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA 31404. Exposure to aniline and its analogs lead to an increase in methemoglobin concentrations in red blood cells. The formation of MetHb is the first hemotoxic response in the induction of hemolytic anemia, which is defined as the premature removal of mature erythrocytes from the circulation following chemical exposure. Whole blood was collected from healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 125-150 grams. Cells were washed (X3) with 50 ml of phosphate buffered saline supplemented with glucose (PBSG, pH 7.4). Methemoglobin induction was determined by treating 1.5 ml aliquots of packed red blood cells with 100, 200, or 300 [micro]M of para-iodo-phenylhydroxylamine (p-iodo-PHA) at 37[degrees]C. Control red blood cells were dosed with 10 [micro]l of acetone. Aliquots (75 [micro]l) were removed from each treatment at specific time points (0-180 minutes) and mixed with 5 ml of cold hemolysis buffer. The percentage of MetHb was determined spectrophotometrically at 635 nm. The remaining cell suspensions from each treatment were washed (X1) with PBSG then lysed in 20 ml of phosphate buffer (5mM, pH 8.0) and centrifuged for 10 minutes to produce red blood cell ghosts. Analysis of membrane proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE. The results suggest a correlation between methemoglobin induction and changes in the banding patterns of red blood cell skeletal membrane proteins.

9:00 Break

9:15 THE EFFECTS OF A SEALED CULTURE VESSEL ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF SHELL-LESS CHICK EMBRYOS, Mariyam Durojaiye*, Daina Ngugi, Folasade Ademosu, Tosin Olaleye, and Army Lester, Kennesaw State University, 1000 Chastain Rd., Kennesaw, GA 30144. The goal of creating an effective culture vessel for maintaining shell-less chick embryos has been limited by high mortality and poor development. In this study, unincubated chick embryos were removed from their shells and cultured in sealed egg-shaped culture vessels made of plastic wrap. The environment was maintained at 37-38 [degrees]C, 60% relative humidity and varying partial pressures of oxygen. The sealed vessel was effective in supporting 90% survival for shell-less embryos during the first three days of incubation, when the partial pressure of oxygen was maintained at 450 mmHg. Approximately 70% of the embryos survived until day 13 under similar conditions. Shell-less embryos cultured with no supplementary oxygen experienced high mortality during the first three days of culture, with less than 10% survival at day 13. Development of shell-less embryos maintained under high oxygen was similar to that of in ovo controls during the first ten days of incubation. However, by the 13th day of incubation, shell-less embryos were significantly smaller than controls. These results indicate that a sealed culture vessel may be effective in helping to maintain the survival and development of shell-less embryos by regulating gas exchange and water loss. Funded by the Kennesaw State University Mentor Prot g Program and a grant from the Georgia Space Grant Consortium.

9:30 DETERMINING THE CONCENTRATION AND PERIOD FOR WHICH THE ANTIBIOTICS VANCOMYCIN, PENICILLIN, AND OXACILLIN HAVE A BACTERICIDAL EFFECT ON BOTH RESISTANT AND SENSITIVE STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND SELECTED ENTEROCOCCAL STRAINS**, Cecile M. Ewane, Don Davis, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144. Previous research (unpublished) has indicated that inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin did not have a bactericidal effect on selected Staphylococcus aureus isolates within 48 hours. To determine bactericidal periods and concentrations, four resistant Enterococcal strains, a control strain with no van genes plus seven Staphylococcus aureus, five resistant and three sensitive to vancomycin strains were tested. All Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from throat cultures derived from healthy adults, and were selected based on zone diameter disk diffusion tests performed using NCCLS standards. Agar minimum inhibitory concentration tests (MICs) per NCCLS standards were used to determine the bactericidal concentrations of the antibiotics. MICs were performed for all strains at concentrations of 4ug/ml, 8ug/ml, 16ug/ml, 32mg/ml, and 64ug/ml of vancomycin. The period for a bactericidal effect was determined by transferring the cells from Mueller-Hinton agar plates containing the various vancomycin concentrations to blood agar plates at 24 hour intervals for eight days. Vancomycin bactericidal effects were as follows: control Enterococcal strain at 4ug/ml after 96 hours (4 days), resistant Enterococcal strains; two isolates at 32ug/ml after 120 hours (5 days), one at 64ug/ml after 144 hours (6 days), no bactericidal effect on one isolate after 8 days, both sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains at 8ug/ml after 96 hours (4 days). Agar vancomycin MICs for the resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and penicillin MICs for all strains are still in progress.

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9:45 Business meeting

10:30 EARLY EXPRESSION OF CHEMOKINES AND RELATED GENES IN HELA CELLS DURING CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION, Tesfaye Belay (*1), E. L. Barr (1), K. S. Kimbro (2), F. EKo (3), J. U. Igietseme (4), G. A. Ananaba (1), (1) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA, (2) Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, (3) Morehouse School of Medicine, 30310, and (4) Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, 30333. Chemokines are important mediators of leukocyte trafficking and recruitment of specific immune cells in host defense against all infections including chlamydial infection. Identification of the patterns of the chemokine response to chlamydial infection is essential to an understanding of the host immune response. Previous studies have demonstrated that certain chemokines and their receptors are crucial in the induction of protective immunity against C. trachomatis and the clearance of infection. However, the initial events associated with Chlamydia-host interaction, especially early expression of chemokine genes and other genes important for immunological events are not well defined. In this study we examined the expression of chemokine genes and other genes induced early during chlamydial infection. Total RNA was isolated from 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 h from chlamydial infected and non-infected HeLA cells. The levels of mRNA chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1, and IP-10) and related genes were determined using the RT-PCR method. Our preliminary data showed increased expression of genes 2 h after infection but indicated a decline 24 h postinfection. Microrray analysis also showed increased level of induction of several gene expressions including RANTES as early as 2 h after infection with C. trachomatis. The early expression of chemokines by infected epithelial cells may contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of infection.

11:00 DIFFERENTIAL TRANSCRIPTION OF HOST GENES DURING GENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION, G. Ananaba (2), E. Barr (2), K. Kimbro (1), T. Belay (2), T. Okou (2), G. Nwankwo (3), G. Ifere (3), F.. Eko (3), Q. He (3), J. Igietseme (1,3,4), (1) Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA, 30322, (2) Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA, (3) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and (4) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium is an intracellular human pathogen that primarily infects the columnar epithelial cells of the ocular and genital mucosae. It is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in both industrialized and developing countries and often leads to significant sequelae in women, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. We hypothesized that protection against chlamydial diseases is influenced by the host genes expressed at the early stages of Chlamydia infection. To identify these cellular genes, differential microarray was used to examine cDNA made from total RNA after two hours of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Affymetrix U133A Human Gene chip which consists of approximately 33,000 genes and Expressed Sequence Tags (ETS), was used to compared the transcribed genes in the infected and noninfected host cells. Microarray suite 5.0 (MAS 5.0) was used to identify over 60 genes that were significantly different in the infected and noninfected groups (P < 0.05). Six genes were upregulated more than 3-fold, 10 genes more than 4-fold (4.0-9.6). Two genes were down-regulated more than 5-fold. Two of the upregulated genes and one of the down-regulated genes are novel mRNA, with no assigned biological function(s). These cellular and molecular entities are important in the overall host response against Chlamydia. They are relevant in our understanding of the host factors that govern acquisition and maintenance of anti-chlamydia immunity, or the development of disease complications. Supported by NIH grants # A141231, RR03062, and GM08247.

11:30 IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNO-REGULATORY FACTORS THATPROMOTE T-CELL ACTIVATION BY PROTEOME ANALYSIS. Qing He (1, 2), Francis O. Eko (1), Amy Martin (2), Deborah Lyn (1), Godwin A. Ananaba (1), Carolyn M. Black (2) and Joseph U. Igietseme (1,2), (1) Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 and (2) National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta GA 30333. Immunity to genital infection by the obligate intra-cellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, requires the induction of TH-1 response. Antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs) are potent activators of Th1 cells. Our previous studies shown that Chlamydial-pulsed IL-10 knockout DCs (IL-10KO) induced high frequency of protective Th1 cells against chlamydial infection. Therefore, analysis of the IL-10 knockout DC system could reveal the novel molecules and their role in potentiating an enhance T cell activation. In this study proteome analyses was used to identify specific molecules in chlamydial pulsed IL10 KO DC system. The results indicated that chlamydial-pulsed IL-10KO DC matured earlier and acquired antigen acquisition and processing ability faster than wild-type (WT) DC, as revealed by the expression of CD11 and MSP receptor within 2 hours of exposure to antigen. In addition, IL-10KO DCs expressed greater levels of critical co-stimulatory and signaling molecules including B7.1, CCL27, CD161 and Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase when compared to WT DC. The enhancing Th1-activating capacity of IL-10KO APCs could be associated with an early maturation, rapid antigen acquisition and processing capacity as well as up-regulated co-stimulation and signaling molecules. The modulation of these molecules may boost T-cell response to vaccines against Chlamydia and several intracellular pathogens.

POSTERS

IC--Second floor lobby

WOUND HEALING OF GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS (GF) AND PERIO-DONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLASTS (PDL) UNDER CYCLICAL MECHANICAL STRAIN (CMS)**, Douglas Lancaster, Michael E. Dinos, James C. McPherson, III, Gary Swiec, Mark Peacock and Augustine H. Chuang, Eisenhower Army Med Center and US Army DENTAC, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Both gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts play critical roles in oral wound healing after surgery. In this study, we investigated wound healing of GF and PDL under the influence of CMS in an in vitro model. Using a rubber-tip policeman, a 3 mm wound was created on confluent, synchronized GF or PDL cells on flexible-bottomed plates in DMEM medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for GF and 10% FBS for PDL. The plates were placed in an incubator connected to a Flexercell Unit programmed to perform CMS. GF cells were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stains on day 1, 2, 4 and 6 and PDL on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 due to their intrinsic nature of slower growth than that of GF. By day 6, GF filled the wound to 75% under CMS condition and 54% under non-CMS condition. GF cells filled the wound faster under CMS condition than non-CMS condition. However, the wound fill of PDL was not only minimum by day 14 under both CMS and non-CMS conditions, but also the unwounded PDL cells started to be detached from the Flex plates under CMS condition. It appears that CMS does significantly hamper and delay the growth of PDL cells and their wound healing.

THE EFFECT OF PLURONIC F68 ON WOUND HEALING OF PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLASTS IN LOW ALCOHOL CONDITION, Augustine H. Chuang, Royce Runner, Carol Lapp, Bharati Bhatt and James C. McPherson, III, Eisenhower Army Medical, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905 and Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. We have shown that alcohol delays wound healing, while Pluronic F68 enhances early wound healing in laboratory animals. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL) play an important role in oral wounds. In this study we observed the effect of F68 on in vitro wound healing of PDL in low alcohol condition. A 3 mm wound was created on a synchronized, confluent layer of PDL in 12-well plate. The PDL cells in DMEM medium with 5% FBS were treated with 0%, 0.025%, 0.05% or 0.1% F68 containing 0%, 0.1%, 0.2% or 0.4% ethanol. On day 3 and 6, the cells were stained with 1% crystal violet. The wound healing of PDL was evaluated microscopically using NIH Scion Image Analysis Software. On day 3, the wound healing without F68 was 37, 33, 30 and 17% in 0, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4% ethanol, respectively; with 0.025% F68 was 40, 28, 23 and 12%; with 0.05% F68 was 35, 33, 25 and 23%; with 0.1% F68 was 28, 27, 25 and 18%; on day 6, without F68 was 90, 47, 32 and 21%; with 0.025% F68 was 72, 55, 42 and 37%; with 0.05% F68 was 68, 52, 38 and 31%; with 0.1% F68 was 62, 55, 33 and 27%. Our data suggest that F68 at 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1% protects PDL cells and also increased wound repopulation in media containing 0.1 to 0.4% ethanol.

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (SLS) ON IN VITRO GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS (GF) WOUND HEALING**, Justin Bordlemay, James C. McPherson, III, Gary Swiec and Augustine H. Chuang, Eisenhower Army Medical Center and US Army DENTAC, Fort Gordon, GA 30905. Sodium lauryl sulfate, a strong anionic, denaturing surfactant, has been used as a foaming agent in toothpastes at concentrations of 0.5-2.0%. We investigated its potential side effect on oral soft tissues during wound healing. A 3 mm wound was created on confluent, synchronized human gingival fibroblasts grown in 12-well plates maintained in DMEM medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum. The cells were treated with 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 or 0.05% SLS once daily for 2 min. The cells were stained on day 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The percent of wound fill was measured using NIH Scion Image Analysis Software. On day 2, 4, 6 and 8, the wound fill of the control (0% SLS) was 15, 35, 67, and 96%, respectively; at 0.01% SLS, it was 10, 20, 65 and 84%; at 0.02% SLS, it was 7, 10, 15 and 25%; and at 0.03% SLS, the wound fill was 5 and 8% on day 2 and 4. The unwounded GF cells started to detach from the wells at 25, 45 and 55% on day 4, 6 and 8, respectively. At 0.04 and 0.05% SLS, most of the unwounded cells started to detached in significant amounts by day 4 and little wound fill took place in these wells. We conclude that after major oral surgery, any dentrifrices containing SLS should be avoided while the dental products containing nonionic surfactants, such as Poloxamer 407 should be considered.

ESTABLISHMENT OF A CRITICAL SIZE CRANIAL DEFECT IN THE MOUSE, J. J. Dalle Lucca, Royce R. Runner and James C. McPherson, III, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. A critical size defect (CSD), used to evaluate bone wound healing, is defined as the smallest defect which will not heal spontaneously in twelve weeks. There are several well established animal models using a circular cranial defect. The CSD in a rat is 8mm, and 12mm in a rabbit. A CSD has not been established in the mouse. Establishment of a mouse CSD model would allow evaluation of bone grafts and bone substitutes in a variety of genetic modified mouse models. A cranial defect, 4mm in diameter, was created in the cranium of anesthetized mice. A PTFE membrane was placed on each side of the cranium to isolate the defect and the skin sutured closed. At twelve weeks (n=8) and one year (n=7) the mice were sacrificed, the cranium removed and a digital x-ray taken. The percent of closure of the defect was determined by radiographic density with intact bone being 100%. At twelve weeks, the mean percent closure of the cranial defects was 55.237% and at one year the percent closure was 64.23%. p = NS. Since a significant area of the critical size defects remained open (bone wound healing was not complete) at twelve weeks, a 4mm diameter defect may be the CSD in a mouse. This observation is supported by the lack of significant additional closure of the 4mm defect at one year. This is the lowest phylogenetic species in which the CSD has been established and furnished bone wound healing research with a powerful new tool of multidisciplinary application.

A THREE MILLIMETER CRANIAL BONE DEFECT AND ITS ROLE IN ESTABLISHING A CRITICAL SIZE DEFECT IN THE MOUSE, Royce R. Runner, J. J. Dalle Lucca and James C. McPherson, III, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, GA 30905. A critical size defect (CSD) is defined as the smallest bone defect which will not heal spontaneously in twelve weeks. While CSD animal models have been established using the mandible and the long bones, the cranium has been the most preferred site. The cranial CSD has been established in the rat, rabbit, dog and monkey, but not lower phylogenetic species. We have attempted to establish the CSD in the cranium of the mouse. A cranial defect, 3 mm in diameter, was created in the cranium of anesthetized mice using a water-cooled trephine. A PTFE membrane was placed on each side of the cranium to isolate the defect and the skin was sutured closed. At twelve weeks (n=5) and one year (n=10) the mice were sacrificed, the cranium removed, and a digital x-ray taken. The percent closure of the defect was determined by radiographic density with intact bone being 100%. At twelve weeks, the mean percent closure was 41.07%. If you were to consider only this data, it would be easy to conclude from the data and the definition of the CSD, that 3 mm would be the CSD size in a mouse. However, when we evaluated the percent bone fill at one year, bone wound healing had continued, reaching 80.91% closure. While this does not represent complete closure of the defect, a significant (p<0.001) amount of new bone formation had occurred. This data indicates a 3 mm cranial defect may not be a CSD in the mouse.

STRENGTH OF NORIAN CRS BONE CEMENT IN A CRANIAL DEFECT**, Richard L. Williams (1), Royce R. Runner (2), Gary D. Swiec (1) and James C. McPherson, III (2), (2) Eisenhower Army Medical Center and (1) US Army DENTAC, Ft. Gordon, GA 30905. Norian CRS Bone Cement, an injectable synthetic bone alloplast, was developed to repair wrist fractures, and latter expanded to vertebral fractures. While determining the suitability of using CRS cement to repair a critical size cranial defect in the rat, the strength of the repair came into question. This experiment was designed to determine the strength of CRS repair in a critical size defect. Harlan Sprague-Dawley laboratory rats were divided into three groups, Intact Control (n=10); CRS Cement (n=7) or Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA, the standard in dental care, n=10). Under appropriate anesthesia, a 8mm cranial defect was created; a PTFE membrane placed cranially, the defect filled with the test material and a PTFE membrane placed over the material. The skin was sutured closed. At twenty weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the cranium removed and cleaned of excess tissue and the strength of the repair determined by measuring the force required to push a 7mm punch through the defect site using an Instron 4502 instrument. There were no significant differences among the three groups. The DFDBA repair had the greatest strength (384 Newtons), the Intact Controls (373 Newtons) and the CRS Cement (289 Newtons). These results indicate that the strength of the repair of a 8mm critical size cranial defect in the rat with Norian CRS Bone Cement is not significantly different than intact bone or a DFDBA repair.

Section VI: Philosophy and History of Science

Section VIII: Anthropology

IC--322

Tom McMullen, Presiding

8:30 A HISTORICAL SKETCH OF "FACTORS WALK RETAINING WALL" AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSE OF THE WALLS EROSION, Elliott O. Edwards, Jr., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah, GA. 31402. Factors Walk Retaining Wall is a stone ballast retaining wall built during 1856-1869. The wall was built of stone (mostly limestone) brought over on cargo ships to prevent the eroding, thirty-foot high sandy bluff from further erosion and to make use of the many tons of stone stacked along river street. There was not an assigned storage area for the stone and, as a result, it hindered to some extent shipping activities. Erosion of the stone and mortar has been occurring for many years and the cause was investigated. It was concluded that salt intrusion is the main source of erosion and acid rain is the secondary source of erosion. The author recommends a course of action to rehabilitate the wall and the need to educate the public about the increasing negative effects of acid rain in the southeast.

9:00 THOMAS SHAW (C. 1694-1751), AN EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY NATURALIST IN THE BARBARY AREAS AND THE HOLY LAND, Vivian Rogers-Price, George A. Rogers and Marvin Goss, LeConte-Woodmanston Foundation, Midway, GA, 31320 and Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460. Thomas Shaw (c. 1694-1751) was educated at Queen's College, Oxford. Soon after receiving his M.A. degree, he was appointed chaplain for the English factory at Algiers. From there he traveled widely in Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Egypt, Syria and the Holy Land. His notes recorded people, antiquities, plants, animals, insects, fish and fossils. After his return to England, he received his D.D. (Queen's College) in 1734. In that same year, he was elected F.R.S. and began to establish himself as a scholar, preacher and administrator. He published his 'Travels and Observations" in 1738. It is replete with detailed descriptions, careful renditions of ancient architectural remains, precise maps and natural history observations. Plant names, such as Persea, and other genera, are probably based on Tournefort instead of Linnaeus. In his Preface, he claimed near 140 species, acknowledged the great assistance of Professor Dillenius and listed additional plants omitted from his 'Catalogue'. He noted his frequent use of footnotes and his citation of the specific passage in these, since few readers would have access to a great library as he did at Oxford. The work made a major contribution to the geography of the Barbary and Levant. His dried plant specimens are preserved at Oxford. The plant genus Shawia commemorates his name.

9:30 VERTEBRATE FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE MINNIS-WARD SITE (SS-3), SAN SALVADOR, BAHAMAS: PRE-COLUMBIAN DIET AND FISHING TECHNIQUES OF THE PEOPLE WHO ENCOUNTERED COLUMBUS, J.P. Blick and D.C. Brinson*, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061. Archaeological investigations on San Salvador, Bahamas in May 2003 and 2004 included archaeological testing and excavations at the Minnis-Ward site. Ca. 10 cubic meters of earth were excavated and passed through fine mesh (2 mm) window screen yielding a total of 31,000+ artifacts, including some 10,000 vertebrate faunal remains. Analysis of the vertebrate faunal remains at the comparative ichthyological collection at the University of Georgia's Museum of Natural History indicates the presence of some 17 different taxa including sea turtle (Cheloniidae), three or four varieties of parrotfish (Sparisoma, Scarus), porgy (Calamus), triggerfish (Balistes), surgeonfish (Acanthurus), various labrids (Labridae), possible hogfish (Lachnolaimus), possible puffer fish (Sphoeroides), jack (Caranx), grouper (Epinephelus, Myctoperca), snapper (Lutjanus), grunt (Haemulon) and needlefish (Tylosurus). The types of fish, their sizes, and habitats reveal a great deal about pre-Columbian diet, fishing techniques, and location of capture. Modern fish behavioral ecology indicates that the inhabitants of the Minnis-Ward site fished in near-shore waters primarily with traps and in offshore deep reef settings with hook-and-line. Funding for this investigation was provided by Georgia College & State University and the Council on Undergraduate Research.

10:00 Business meeting

10:30 C.D. LEAKE'S WORLD VIEW DRIVEN TRANSLATION OF HARVEY'S DE MOTU CORDIS, Tom McMullen, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8054. Chauncey Depew Leake (1896-1978) was a scientist and past president of both the History of Science Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was also a member of the American Humanist Association, which believes there is no Deity. William Harvey (1578-1657) is famous for his discovery of the circulation of the blood, which he reported in Exercitatio Anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628). His world view is that God designed each feature of the human body with a purpose. Careful analysis of the Latin text shows that Leake's humanist world view influenced his translation of De Motu Cordis. For example, everywhere that Harvey used the Latin word for purpose, Leake translated it in some other way, such as using the word "function" instead. Harvey's use of purpose and his creationist world view were important in the discovery of the blood's circulation. However, the impression given by Leake's translation is that they were not.

11:00 MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE, Ronald E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314. The spectacular successes of the sciences are due in large measure to the use of mathematics in the creation and analysis of models for the phenomena of interest. Clearly, mathematics is a very effective tool for the formulation of scientific theories. So, if mathematics is the "language of science", how is this possible? Also, is this mathematics the same mathematics often referred to as "pure mathematics?" In recent times, the essay of Eugene P. Wigner sparked renewed interest in the problem. We go beyond the discussion of "the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics," by examining the relationships between mathematical concepts and their corresponding physical manifestations. Our general conclusion is that a distinction must be made between the pure mathematics utilized in the formulation of physical theories and the "physical mathematics" required to connect the predictions of these theories to the phenomena.

11:30 DISPERSION OF INDIAN SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE FROM ANTIQUITY TO MODERNITY, Bhagyavati, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907. This paper explores possible routes by which scientific knowledge of the Indian subcontinent was transmitted to other parts of the world in ancient and medieval times. Beginning with prehistoric times, the paper is an account of how Indian science was transmitted to other cultures until the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th century A.D. Scientific development in India was trivial in the years that followed. Today, India is catching up to Western scientific advances that started during the Renaissance. The organization of the paper is as follows: First, a sampling of early Indian knowledge and significant contributions to science are described. Different dispersion routes of Indian scientific knowledge to Europe and the West are then discussed. Finally, a narrative of the difficulties in obtaining evidence of the work of early Indian scientists is presented. This section is followed by concluding remarks and a list of references used in the paper. Indian science evolved rapidly during its heyday, stagnated in the middle "dark" ages, and is now enjoying a resurgence of interest.

Section VII: Science Education

IC--422

Rebecca Penwell, presiding

8:30 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL GEOMETRY TEXTBOOKS, Ronald E. Mickens, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 300314. High school geometry textbooks have changed during the last half century from being elementary introductions to plane geometry to now including the elements of analytical geometry, networks, and other topics. Also modern textbooks and the associated courses have a large diverse set of support materials available to both instructors and students: dedicated websites, software for constructions, sample test problems, history of the subject, etc. We have carried out a comparative analysis of three geometry textbooks published over a span of sixty years. The items for comparison include book lengths; number of figures, illustrations, and pictures; number and type of worked examples and problems; and in and out of classroom resource needs. Our major conclusions are: (1) The geometry course has evolved from their presentation of pure geometry to a heterogeneous course on a variety of mathematics topics. (2) Manual skills have been replaced by computer manipulations

8:45 STUDENT'S RETENTION OF SCIENCE CONTENT THROUGH VARIOUS ASSESSMENT MEASURES**, Nabulungi Bolton* and Benita Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30318. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness of teacher and student centered instructional methods on high school students' retention of science content using various assessment measures. The focus group for this study was a mixed gender sample of biology students from an urban high school setting, an Engineering Magnet school. The objective of this study was to compare the retention of knowledge in science for a variety of instructional strategies. Retention of science knowledge was measured utilizing traditional and authentic assessments. The student's performance on an array of assessments such as quizzes, laboratory reports, traditional tests and product based assessments were analyzed after various instructional methods such as lecture-discussions, direct instruction, guided discovery, cooperative learning and problem-based learning and inquiry were implemented. Data was analyzed by triangulation and induction. The survey indicated that students prefer teacher-centered learning over problem-based learning, which is one of the student-centered methods of instructions. Future research will include additional data collection and analysis with continued intervention.

9:00 THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEWTONIAN CONCEPTS IN MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN**, Paul Camp, Akilah Bonner*, Evelyn Conley*, Lauren Thomas*, Tenicka Turnquest, 350 Spelman Lane, Atlanta, GA 30314-4399. Periodic content quizzes were given in order to better understand the development of Newtonian conceptualization in middle school students. The distracters were chosen to indicate the prior states of understanding that the students were using to assess each question. A snapshot of the students' understanding of each of Newton's Laws is determined by analyzing the answers given to several questions about each law. The goal of this research initiative is not only to improve physics education, but to foster children's interest in physics by making it more accessible.

9:15 USING A SKILL MATRIX AS A PREDICTOR OF STUDENT SUCCESS ON A PHYSICAL SCIENCE END OF THE COURSE (EOCT) EXAMINATION**, Ernest Kelly*, Bonita E. Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. A practice Physical Science EOCT consisting of fifty objective multiple-choice questions was administered to students and item-analyzed using scantron answer forms coupled with an item analysis feature, which identified test questions most students answered incorrectly. Materials, such as labs, activities and worksheets, were developed to target areas of weakness indicated by the analysis. A skill matrix consisting of three core comprehension components for each skill was used to monitor and chart the progress of students in preparation of the EOCT. The first component provides a description of the skill, the second component requires that the skill be demonstrated, and the third component provides an opportunity to apply the skill. The matrix will serve as both a diagnostic and a prognostic instrument of EOCT preparation.

9:30 A CASE STUDY OF K-12 STUDENTS AND PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF A SERVICE LEARNING PROJECT IN SCIENCE EDUCATION, Ollie I. Manley, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. 30314. Teacher education programs across the country are including service learning in their curriculums. It is believed that service-learning activities can strengthen teaching candidates' practice of critical reflection, causing them to examine their assumptions about the ways in which teachers and schools interact with students. The purpose of this service-learning project was to enhance the teacher candidates' experience in the use of technology in the teaching of science and mathematics by requiring them to provide a needed service in a faith-based school located in an urban community. The project provided K-12 students with content-driven learning outside the traditional academic setting and encouraged the application of technology in a way that gave the students a connection to the real world. K-12 students completed special projects, made presentations and improved their classroom performance. The site official, the K-12 students, and the teacher candidates completed questionnaires. This data was analyzed to determine if the teacher candidates had an impact on the infusion of technology in the teaching of science and mathematics. Data analysis showed that there was a strong positive relationship between pre-service teachers' perception of service learning and student performance.

9:45 Break

10:00 Business meeting

10:30 USING GROUP EXAMS AS A LEARNING TOOL IN GEOLOGY COURSES, Polly A. Bouker, Georgia Perimeter College, 1000 University Center Lane, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. At the time of an exam, students are better prepared for a discussion of course material than at any other time preceding the exam. However, this is typically a point in when discussion is discouraged. An innovative approach to learning through assessment utilizes a group discussion of exam questions. First, students complete the exam on an individual basis and then students are placed in randomly generated groups to discuss the answers to each test question with other members of their group. For many, the material becomes clearer at this time, and they are able to see their errors in logic. Groups are rewarded with bonus points if they improve their score over the mean of individual scores for each group member. This encourages students to participate in the discussion because they are motivated to succeed as a group. The discussion of exam questions by groups generates rich discussion and clarification of geological concepts. As indicated by the results of an anonymous survey, students prefer this method to simply going over the correct answers even if they do not receive any bonus points.

10:45 MATHEMATICAL PROOFS AND CONCEPTUALIZATIONS, Sandra Rucker, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314. Mathematical proof is considered the benchmark of mathematics for many mathematicians. The purpose of this work is to explore student conceptions regarding mathematical proofs. Data was collected from students enrolled in mathematics courses for pre-service elementary teachers and other mathematics courses. Student responses on surveys, writing assignments, and work completed on tests were analyzed. We concluded that a better understanding of mathematical proof techniques leads to enhanced student performance.

11:00 REALTIME ELVIS IN THE CLASSROOM: USING LabVIEW IN THE INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS LABORATORY, Julie Talbot, James Espinosa, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118. LabVIEW is a data acquisition system commonly used in industry, as well as academic research and it is increasingly being used in classroom settings as well. National Instruments is now selling a unit called ELVIS (Electronics Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite) that contains, in one package, a DMM, protoboard, function generator, power supply, oscilloscope, and many other basic electronics instruments. While this has obvious applications for the electronics laboratory curriculum, it may also be used in the introductory classroom, since there are adapters available that allow analog and digital sensors, such as Vernier's temperature sensor and motion sensor, to plug directly into the protoboard, so that the output can be read, displayed and analyzed by LabVIEW. This allows students to gain familiarity with LabVIEW in the introductory classes, so that they are more able to use it to its fullest capability in the advanced laboratory classes. The authors have submitted a NSF grant to use the ELVIS in all levels of the experimental curriculum, and in preliminary findings, have discovered that the sensors give experimental results within 7% of the accepted values.

11:15 COMPARING STUDENT SATISFACTION WITH GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDIES IN HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. John V. Aliff, Georgia Perimeter College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043. Case studies help students understand the multiple issues involved in the explanation of natural phenomena. Students can experience open-ended problem solving where the student scientists, working individually and in teams, consider competing hypotheses and use deduction and induction over a long series of experimental observations, and may arrive at multiple solutions. The case study method is similar to that used in Nursing curricula. Step-wise, case studies should be designed to allow the students to recognize multiple solutions, to research what we know about the problems, brainstorm for connections, pose specific questions, and investigate the questions using the scientific method. Students preferred individual case studies to group studies.

11:30 AUTHENTIC POPULATION STUDY FOR BIOLOGY STUDENTS USING BOX TURTLES, David L. Bechler and Leslie S. Jones, Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698. The science education community is actively looking for ways to provide inquiry-oriented activities that allow students to experience something closer to genuine scientific investigations than traditional "cookbook" labs. We have developed a versatile laboratory exercise that literally allows students to carry out an authentic population study and learn the importance of statistical analysis of the data set they have generated. The lesson uses a captive population of active-breeding three-toed box turtles, Terrapene c. carolina; an organism that students are willing and able to handle without aversion or risk. The class of students rotates through a variety of different tasks that include: identifying and recording sex, eye color, ability to close shell, weight, carapace length, plastron length, and dome height. With minimal preparation, science students generate data sets comparable to trained biologists. They subsequently manage their own data and demonstrate how regression analyses showed that size parameters of weight and shell dimensions are highly correlated. From this study it can be concluded that students felt they learned more about scientific processes by actually conducting an authentic population study, as opposed to going through the motions of the traditional "cookbook" lab exercise. Specifically, students indicated an appreciation for the practical difficulties of working with live animals, and a sense of pride and ownership of the real data they collected.

11:45 ENRICHING PRE-COLLEGE SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS' TEACHERS' RESEARCH SKILLS USING RESEARCH SCIENTISTS AS MENTORS, Bonita E. Flournoy, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. 30314. The Clark Atlanta University and Partners Summer Fellows Institute, over a two-year period, provided 40 middle and secondary science and mathematics teachers research summer experiences in the labs of ten on-site research scientists. Four teachers were assigned to each scientist, representing earth science, botany, theoretical physics, theoretical geometry, and organic chemistry. Each set of four teachers implemented research projects over a two-week period. This descriptive study identified teachers' prior research experiences, educational preparation, and infusion of the scientific research process in their classroom teaching, by administering a survey questionnaire. The objectives of the research experiences were to actively engage classroom teachers in cutting-edge research, implement the scientific method; expose teachers to current instrumentation and equipment for analyzing data, and infuse the knowledge gained in their everyday pedagogical practices. Findings of this study found that 78% of teachers did not have previous formal research experiences, 60% of teachers had degrees in either science or mathematics, and 50% had knowledge or experience with the instrumentation and or materials used in their respective research labs. Teacher participants indicated that they would infuse their research work as part of ongoing science projects for their students and continue the collaboration with the research scientist mentors.

* Denotes student presenter

** Denotes student in progress research

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